Saturday, August 31, 2019
Approaches of OMÃ :Within the past fifteen years or so there has been much studies about the theoretical status of discourse markers (DMS) focusing on what they are ,what they mean and what functions they manifest. Fraser (1999) maintains that teseachers have agreed that DMS are lexical expressions that relate discourse segments , but they have disagreed on how they are defined and what functions they carry. Similar to this view, shourup (1999) argues that there is disagreement on functions on fundamental issues in the study of DMS. researchers are unable to agree on the grammatical category of DMS or how to delimit their class or even what types of meaning these markers express. In order to understand more about DMS in language it is necessary to refer to tow approaches of DMSÃ :The reliance theory and coherence teased approach1/coherence based approach:Within coherence theory it is assumed DMS play a major role in dis course interpretation by using Ã¢â¬Å"coherence Ã¢â¬ relations between discourse units. As shourup (1999,p.240) argues that the interpretation of a text, according to the coherence group. Depends on the identification of coherence relations between the units of that text . this group includes researchers who adopt a coherence-based theory. The main figures of this group are Schifrin (1987). Fraser (1988-1990) and redeker (1990-1991).Schifrin (1987) studies the semantic and grammatical status of DMS and their functions . since she belongs to the coherence group, Schifrin states that DMS contribute to the coherence of the text by establishing coherence relationships between units of talk Schifrin (1987,b.9). He adds that DMS indicate that the interpretation of one clause is determined by the information derived from the prior clause .Schifrin proposes that DMS have a coherence role in the sense that they relate informational units in the present discourse with informational units in the prior discourse , this is what Schifrin calls local coherence in her framework; which means that it is local in the sense that DMS link two adjacent units in the text. She states that DMS have both cohesive and structural roles ; structural because they link two (or more) syntactic units, and also cohesive because the interpretation of the utterance depends on the combination of both conjuncts. It can be summarized that Schifrin concentrates on the linguistic and structural role that DMS play to achieve discourse coherence by linking discourse units The second figure of coherence-based theory is Fraser(1999). Similarly to Schifrin, Fraser maintains that DMS contribute to the coherence of a text by indicating coherence relationships between units of talk however, Fraser(1999,938) indicates that DMS do not have to signal any relationship between segment 2 and segment 1 (adjacent segments of talk ).A discourse marker can relate the segment it introduces with any other previous segment in discourse .And this is known as Ã¢â¬Ëglobal coherence ,it is contrasted to Schifrin's local coherence . Fraser's (1997-1999) account focuses on pragmatic functions of DMS ;he calls them Ã¢â¬Å"pragmatic markersÃ¢â¬ . Fraser define DMS in his proposal as they are linguistic element that encode clues which signal the speaker potential communicative intention .2/ Relevance-based account:Sperber and Wilson (1986,1995) have developed the relevance theory. It is a pragmatic model that explain how speakers interpret utterances. It based on cognitive ability of the hearer to interpret the utterance rather the linguistic one. The relevance theory suggests that the mind's central processor is highly effective in holding the information because it is specifically oriented towards the search for relevance (as cited in the use of discourse markers in E.F.L learners writing by ana cristina laluerta Martinez university of Oviedo). The principle of relevance determines that all utterances are ruled by the level of optimal relevance .that is to say ,when a speaker calls a hearer's attention to the utterance . He is claiming that his utterance is relevant enough to deserve the hearer's attention. To discuss deeply the relation between relevance theory and discourse markers , Blakemore should be present Blakemore (1987) argument is that DMS play a crucial role in the interpretation of utterance by providing the hearer/reader with some guidance in the inferential phase to reach the optimal relevance. According to Blakemore (1987), connectives contribute to the interpretation process. Usually a speaker/writer has a specific interpretation of his utterance and to guide the hearer/reader to reach the right interpretation DMS are so important .They provide the specification of certain properties of the context and the contextual effects .The level of optimal relevance means that the larger contextual effect the smaller cognitive effort . generally the hearer stores a number of assumption in his memory ,and these assumptions can interact with the new information conveyed by the speaker , which come up with three results ; a new assumption or the contradiction , and even elimination , of an assumption Blakemore (1992;p.135). This the speakers/writer can help the hearer by reducing the cognitive effort. As Blakemore (1992;p.176) Ã¢â¬Å"a speaker may use the linguistic from of his utterance to guide the interpretation processÃ¢â¬ . Similar features of discourse markers:Despite the large disagreement about the definition and the classification of discourse markers ,There are some basic characteristic and features shared by discourse markers have been identified in DMS studies. Schourup (1999) argues, Ã¢â¬Å"to identify a small sent of characteristic most commonly attributes to discourse markers and to items referred to by other closely associated termsÃ¢â¬ . He realizes the most common features in these expressions from some studies in the discourse markers. These features are Ã¢â¬Å"multi-categoriality, connectivity, mon-truth conditionality, weak clause association, initiality, and optionalityÃ¢â¬ a-multi- categoriality : It is viewed that discourse markers constitute a functional category that is heterogeneous with respect to the syntactic class (as cited in (similar features). Because items that are usually included in DMS are not structurally unified. They are derived from a variety of grammatical sources. Schourup (1999,p.134) distinguishes in wich DM function has been a attributed whether words like: adverbs (eg, now actually, anyway), coordinating and subordinating conjunctions (e.g, and, but, because). Interjections (e.g, oh, gosh, boy) verbs (e.g, say, look, see) or it can includes clauses (e.g, you see, I mean, you know). The fact that DMS are drown from different word classes makes them difficult to define them structurally. And that means they have identical counterparts that are not used as markers. Kohlani (2010,p39) points out that despite the great dispute regarding Ã¢â¬Å"the coexistence of two structurally identical items that function differently in discourseÃ¢â¬ , they do not overlap in discourse :When an expression functions as a discourse markers ,it does not express the propositional meaning of, its identical counterparts. As cites in janina buintkiene (2015)b- connectivity :connectivity is a common point shared by many studies concerning the DMS. They agree that DMS connect utterances or other discourse unites. However, there is a great disagreement about the nature of the connection discourse markers express and the nature and extent of the element connected ,as Schourup ( 1999,p20)point out. Thus connectivity is conceived differently due to the way discourse is viewed. In coherence-based studies, like Schifrin (1987) and Fraser (1999) defined DMS as connectives which relate two textual units by marking the relationships between them; they contribute to inter-utterance coherence. For coherence-based studies DMS have an important role in connecting one segment of text to another. In relevance-based studies, DMS do not connect one segment of text to another but they provide the hearer/reader with the right interpretation of the segment they introduce. Blakemore (1987) noted that DMS can play the role of connecting the host utterance not only the linguistic co-text but also to the context in a wider sense. For within relevance theory, discourse markers are viewed as expressing Ã¢â¬Å"inferential connectionsÃ¢â¬ that constrain the Ã¢â¬Å"cognitive processesÃ¢â¬ underlying the interpretation of the segment they introduce (Blakemore(2002,p.5).similar to this view, shourup (1999,p.230-232)states that DMS do not connect one segment of text to another. Rather they connect the Ã¢â¬Å"propositional contentÃ¢â¬ expressed by their host sentence Ã¢â¬Å"to assumptions that are expressed by contextÃ¢â¬ . He concludes that if connectivity is criterial for DM status, it can be used to distinguish DMS from various other initial element such as illocutionary adverbials (e.g, confidentially), attitudinal adverbials (e.g, sadly) and from primary interjections (e.g, oops). c/ nontruth-conditionality: nontruth-conditionality is also a feature that most researchers attribute to discourse markers. Saying that DMS are nontruth-conditional means that they bring no meaning or condition to the sentence. As Schourup (1999,p.232) claims that DMS are generally thought to contribute nothing to the truth-conditions of the proposition expressed by an utterance. Fraser (1996) also claimed that DMS do not influence the truth-conditions of sentences; he approved the idea that truth-conditions pertain to mental representations not to sentences. Accordingly ,for many researchers discourse markers are nontruth-conditional means that DMS are part of the pragmatic component of the sentence. Ostman (1995,p.98) argues that their Ã¢â¬Å"primary task in language is not related to the propositional aspect of sentences, but to the pragmatic functioning of languageÃ¢â¬ . Moreover, Blakemore (2002) points out that pragmatic is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"meaning minus truth conditionsÃ¢â¬ . She argues that pragmatic information which is not part of the truth conditional content Ã¢â¬Å"cannot be obtained through decoding linguistic formsÃ¢â¬ . As a conclusion, DMS are non-propositional expressions means that they are not part of propositional meaning of the sentence moreover; this does not mean they do not effect this meaning. DMS are not important in the propositional structure, but they do effect the propositional meaning. As Andersen (2001) argues that the meaning of the sentence is Ã¢â¬Å"not handled solely by the words contained in the utteranceÃ¢â¬ rather is conveyed by Ã¢â¬ complex semantic and pragmatic processesÃ¢â¬ , as cited by kohlan (2010).d/ weak clause association:another characteristic of discourse markers that has been identified by Schourup (1999,p.232-234) is weak clause association. It is similar to the nontruth-conditionality feature is the sense of the detachment of DMS from their host sentence. As cited in janina buitkiene (2015), Brinton argues (1996,p.34), DMS usually occur Ã¢â¬Å"cither outside the syntactic structure or loosely attached to itÃ¢â¬ . DMS are regarded as being outside the propositional content and the syntactic structure of the sentence. Schourup (1999) points out that some of DMS have their syntactic structure such as on the other hand and you know (232). It is also because of their loose grammatical attachment to the structure of their host sentence, that discourse markers are after separate from the main clause by comma or independent two unit Ã¢â¬Å"regard Len whether they occur within the clause or at its initialÃ¢â¬ (ibid, 233). e/ initiality:IS one of the most noticeable feature of discourse markers. For some researchers. DMS occurs initially in the sentence. As Hansen (1997,p.157) points out that Ã¢â¬Å"markers must necessarily precede their host unitÃ¢â¬ . Similarly, Fraser (1990,p389) state Ã¢â¬Å"typically occur only in utterance-initial positionÃ¢â¬ . The significance of the initial position as a text organizer is what makes it the most appropriate place in which discourse markers can fulfill their role in discourse. As cited in.The place of DMS is related to their function in discourse. Schourup (1999) states. Ã¢â¬Å"because they are used to restrict the contextual interpretation of an utteranceÃ¢â¬ ; he adds Ã¢â¬Å"it makes sense to restrict context early before interpretation can run astrayÃ¢â¬ (233). Moreover, kohlani (2010.48) argues that initial position give for DMS wide scope over the whole sentence or paragraph to influence hearer or reader interpretation of everything that follows. f/ Optionality:Being optional rather than obligatory is another feature of discourse markers. Accordingly, DMS can be present or absent in the discourse. As Schifrin (1987) argues. Ã¢â¬Å"are never obligatoryÃ¢â¬ . Moreover, Schourup (1999,p.231) states that DMS are optional in two distinct senses: Ã¢â¬Å"syntactically optional in the sense that removal of a DMS does not alter grammaticality of the sentences and in the further sense that they do not enlarge the possibilities for semantic relationship between the element they associateÃ¢â¬ . However, he adds. Ã¢â¬Å"it is never claimed that the optionality of DMS renders them useless as redundantÃ¢â¬ . This means even if DMS are regarded as syntactically and semantically optional, pragmatically are not. Supporting to this view, Brinton (1996) argues, Ã¢â¬ they are not pragmatically optional or superfluousÃ¢â¬ . Instead , they guide the hearer/reader to a particular interpretation. As Brinton (1996,p.34) argues Ã¢â¬Å"they reinforce or clue the interpretation intended by the speakerÃ¢â¬ .
Friday, August 30, 2019
Library has increased with the complexity of our society. The rapid growth of technology has meant that many gadgets and equipment have appeared and continuous progress of the world the help of the Science and Technology. Library is considered the heart of the school it is expected to be taken care of for its normal functioning day by day. Many students, workers, and researchers need varies value information that are provided by the library and giving them important data that they need. At the same time libraries are progressing as the whole world progress. The world we live it seems so easier now because of the fast growing high technology that were given by the inventors. In the same phase of this statement, we have to aim the perception of the students in a particular library, are they satisfied regarding the services provided by the library, and are they comfortable. Library is derived from the French word Ã¢â¬Å"librairieÃ¢â¬ in Latin Ã¢â¬Å"liberÃ¢â¬ means book. It is an organized collection of information resources made accessible to a defined community for reference. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. A libraryÃ¢â¬â¢s collection can include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints, documents, microforms, CDs, cassettes, video tapes, DVDs, e-books, audio books, database, and other formats. A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who chose not to Ã¢â¬â or cannot afford to Ã¢â¬â purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition libraries are expected with provision to ensure maximum and availability of collection of all references needed, there by showing the satisfactory use of the library materials through adequate range and quality services. Administration should enforced proper coordination between the faculty and the library staffs in promoting effective use of library resources by the students. Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. They are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing very large amounts of information with a variety of digital tools. In the Philippines, the national library can trace its history to the establishment of the Museo-Biblioteca de Filipinas (Museum-Library of the Philippines), established by royal order of the Spanish government on August 12, 1887. It opened on October 24, 1891 at the Casa de la Monedain Intramuros, then home of the Philippine Mint, with around 100 volumes and with both Julian Romero and Benito Perdiguero as director and archivist-librarian, respectively. Romero resigned in 1893 and was briefly replaced by Tomas Torres of the Escuela de Artes y OfÃ cios in Bacolor, Pampanga (now the Don Honorio Ventura College of Arts and Trades), who in turn was replaced by Don Pedro A. Paterno on March 31, 1894. By that time, the library had moved to a site in Quiapo near the present site of the Masjid Al-Dahab. Later on, Paterno published the first issue of the BoletindelMuseo-Bibliotecade Filipinas (Bulletin of the Museum-Library of the Philippines) on January 15, 1895. The Museo-Biblioteca was abolished upon the onset of the America colonization of the Philippines. By the time of its abolition, the library held around 1,000 volumes and averaged around 25-30 visitors a day. The entire collection would later be transferred at PaternoÃ¢â¬â¢s expense to his own private library, of which some books would form the basis for the Filipiniana collection of subsequent incarnations of the national library. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library) In the University of Cagayan Valley, library offers studentÃ¢â¬â¢s service such as informational service, Wi-Fi connection, and internet connection. In this way, the University of Cagayan Valley is getting for the best in uplifting the quality and trainingÃ of the students as the costumers of the institution. The University of Cagayan Valley operates with the open shelves and internet system. Book holdings are classified according to the Dewey decimal classification schemed, it consists of different section namely; the general reference section; periodicals; reserve section; circulation; filipiniana and reading room. Many students found it difficult to utilize the services just like the BSMT students perceptions in the library regarding of their services which in the internet system there are no printing machine provided to the students that they can use therefore, this is one of the reason which struck the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to conduct a research in order to know and evaluate how tertiary students perceive in the delivery of services of the library. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions as well as the recommendations Summary of Findings: 1. Age Ã¢â¬â The frequency highest frequency of BSMT students from 2nd Ã¢â¬â 3rd year was 18 years old followed by 17, 19, 20, 21, and the last is 22. 2. Gender Ã¢â¬â The majority was male having percentage of 90% while the female is 10% only. 3. Civil Status Ã¢â¬â All respondents was single. 4. Religion Ã¢â¬â The Roman Catholic is the highest frequency having percentage of 97% and 3% only for the other religion. 5. Students Ã¢â¬â There 509 BSMT students from 2nd Ã¢â¬â 3rd Year of the University of Cagayan Valley and only 100 students who were chosen through random sampling. Conclusion: The data gathered showed by this study pertaining to the respondents profile were contributive to the effectiveness of the subject under the study. From the findings of the study, it could be further concluded that the perception of the BSMT students on the services of the library of UCV is often. BIBLIOGRAOHY Serafin D. Quiazon, Ã¢â¬Å"Reflecting of the Staff Development of the National LibraryÃ¢â¬ , Bulletin of the National Library association. NIV (March-June 1972) p. 8. Ferdinand Marcos, 46th General Conference International Federation of library Association and Institution. (Manila: IFLA, 1980), p. 5. Philippine Library Association, Bulletin of the Philippine Library Association. Vol. 7, Nos, 1-4. P. 53. Dr. Lino Arquiza, Ã¢â¬Å"The administrators Role in Developing Library ServiceÃ¢â¬ . p.2(114 JPL 27 (1&2): pp. 109-150) Veranda C. Sernande, May 2004, LIBRARY RESOURCE, FACILITIES AND SERVICES OF THE PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION ON THE CAGAYAN VALLEY REGION (Dissertation). Denny, Carolyn Ann King, A survey of UserÃ¢â¬â¢s Attitudes Towards the Resources and Sources of the Three University Libraries in Saudi Arabia, Dissertation Abstract International, 55 (1995) Internet Resource http://www.studymode.com/essays/Review-Of-Related-Studies-1320212.html http://nnlm.gov/mar/about/valuerelated.html http://www.studymode.com/essays/Review-Of-Related-Studies-1397981.html Title: Production Scheduling for Manufacturing Execution System Author: SteÃ¯ ¬â¬en Lamparter, Lars Jordan Farzana Shafique, Islamia University, Bahawalpur. http://www.studymode.com/essays/Review-Of-Related-Studies-1397981.html http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/~mbolin/baskaran.htm http://paarl.wikispaces.com/file/view/Evaluation+of+Standards+for+Acad+Libraries.pdf Title: AN EVALUATION OF STANDARDS FOR Ã
The Mayas and the Incas are two Indian civilizations that inhabited South America and left a significant mark on the culture and history of these places. They both have legends that link their arrival to immigration from the East; however it is more likely that the immigration occurred from the north. Though these two cultures had some similarities one of these was not language as they had several differences in their native tongues. However, regardless of the differences legends have claimed a community of origin between these two civilizations, in the remote past.The Inca civilization has a reign of less than 200 years in comparison to the Maya civilization and has its base in the area that is now Peru. They flourished in the highlands of the Andes and their reign is estimated as being from AD 1438 Ã¢â¬â 1534. They also extended into the areas that are now Ecuador and Chile. There are links that show that this civilization was derived from a warlike tribe that moved into the val ley at Cuzco. Their reign was estimated to span from the Maule River to the Quito.In contrast, the Maya civilization emerged in BC 1000 and lasted more than a thousand years in the Yucatan area of Mexico into Guatemala, Belize and Honduras. They were responsible for the creation of many cities in their time such as Tikal and Uxual. They also had a wide span however their system of governance varied greatly and there was no emperor but rather several powerful heads in each city. There was also no capital as each city ruled itself.In terms of religious practices both civilizations practiced sacrificing of animals and at times of humans as well.Ã They also both worshipped several Gods. The Incas believed in a creator and many sky gods. They called gold the Ã¢â¬Å"sweat of the sunÃ¢â¬ and viewed it as precious only in materials used for ceremonial items. They focused on rituals that they believed led to healing and increasing harvest. In a trait similar to the Mayas, in times of c alamity they believed in the sacrifice of humans.These times included earthquakes and drought. The Inca also had a similar religion to the Inca. They also believed in several nature Gods and in the use of sacrifice to appease the Gods. The thought that the feeding of blood to the Gods would also appease and satisfy the Gods so that theirÃ children would be healthy and their crops would be good. Religion was important in daily life and this is evident from the information that has been attained from pottery, the walls of buildings and murals.Inca architecture was ornate. The capital city was Cuzco and this was the richest city in the Americas at that time. The temples were decorated with gold plates. There were many royal estates and palaces that were for the nobility and were constantly maintained by the builders and artisans. The Mayas had elaborate buildings as well but were more advanced in their use of material.They used concrete in their construction and built pyramids as mon uments to Gods and leaders. Some of these pyramids were as tall as 200 feet. They also had a distinctive style of construction. The pyramids that they built the tops were flat unlike those in Egyptian architecture. This meant that their leaders were able to climb and sit atop the pyramids.There were mainly three staples in the Inca diet. These were corn, potato and a seed called quinua. They were advanced in thinking and grew a surplus of food for times of war and drought. The quinua was the seed that was used to produce flour and cereal.Corn was used in religious ceremonies and to make a drink called Chicha. The Maya diet was also largely reliant on agriculture. They cultivated corn, beans, sweet potatoes, squash and yucca. Corn was the main staple in their diet. They also sourced meat from the hunting of deer, monkey, duck and wild turkey. The product that was limited in consumption to the nobles was chocolate and was referred to as the drink of the Gods.The Incas had rulers that enforced a strong work ethic in them. Though they had leisure time this time was focused more on religious festivals. Many festivals would take place that were to honour leaders, Gods and to help with a good harvest. The Maya, in contrast, actually had a lot more activities. They had a game called Ã¢â¬Å"pok-ol-pokÃ¢â¬ that used a rubber ball.This game is very similar to what we know today as soccer. As in soccer the hands were not used to touch the ball and the ball had to be hit though a ring. This game could be very competitive and sometimes the losing team would lose their life. They also had trumpets made from conch shells and drums that they used to play music. Some other instruments included the turtle shell rattles and the pottery flutes. They loved to dance and play music and would honour the rulers and Gods by doing these activities.Both societies were classed societies. The Maya had at the bottom of the ladder the slaves. This was followed by the peasants, artisans, no bility, priests and the leaders at the top. There was no supreme leader. The farmers raised crops and worked hard as they did not use animals to prepare fields. Craftsmen made murals, pottery, jewellery and many other items.They also had piercing and tattoos like today but viewed beauty differently. The Inca had a similar class but with labourers below and an Emperor at the top. Farmers also worked hard and grew crops but also reared animals. The llamas were used for transport and the alpacas for their wool. The Inca painted their faces and also had piercings. They in addition had the ear of boys pierced in a manhood ceremony and a gold disc placed in the hole. When the boy grew older this disc was replaced with larger and larger discs. This was considered to be a sign of beauty.The culture of the Maya was very developed. They possessed a written language and books. They also had experts in the fields of mathematics and astronomy. As already mentioned, their architecture was excepti onal and they constructed palaces and pyramids with great skill. The writings of the Maya are perhaps on of the first writings of the Americas. They utilized pictures and symbols to represent words and thoughts.These symbols can be known as glyphs and have been found in books and walls. Their books were folded like a fan and were called codices. Their number system was advanced and they based it on the number 20 unlike our present system that uses 10. The Maya could subtract and add. It has also been seen that they were able to plot the movement of the sun, moon and Venus. They performed calculations on the orbit of Venus that have been found to be very accurate today. Their calendar is the most accurate one from the ancient world. They based their year on a 365 day system over one thousand years ago.The Inca culture was not as advanced and they did not have any written language. They did have the foresight to have verbal historians in their society that ensured that their history w as passed along through the generations. The form of mathematics that was practiced was also not very developed. They used a quipus to keep track of numbers. This consisted of coloured strings and knots tied. The quipu rememberers were able to translate the knots and keep track of amounts.The method by which the quipu was used is not known today. Although notÃ very advanced like the Maya in many aspects the Inca were also skilled in terms of architecture. The material they used was stone and not concrete however they were skilled enough to be able to fit the stones perfectly without the use of mortar. They also had the insight to build a lot of roads as much as 10,000 miles in addition to many temples, palaces and bridges. Their bridges were great structures that were made using a rope suspension method and they were advanced in terms of irrigation.The Inca and the Maya civilizations both have a lot of similarities and differences. The similarities in their religious beliefs are e vident on further inspection. These may be due to the fact that they most probably have in their lineages common ancestors or roots. The belief in sacrifices as well as the similarities in some of their Gods points clearly to this. The importance that the societies have placed on religion is also evident in their cultures.One factor that can account for the advanced development of the Maya civilization is the fact that they were an old civilization. This civilization had a lot of time to develop. The time period that they existed for was over a thousand years giving them a lot of time to develop, grow, explore and investigate the world around them and ways to improve their life. This information could then be passed along through the generations and built on and further developed with each successive generation.The Inca civilization, however, is one that was very young in age. They were around for only a period of about 200 years. This means that they were not able to advance to the degree of the Maya civilization within that timeframe. There achievements are in fact great for the limited time that they were in their prime. Their language given time, I am certain would have developed into a written language as well.Location of the civilizations can also account for differences in their diet and daily life. Though in the southern continent of the Americas the types of crops planted and reared would have varied from area to area and this would affect the type of food that was consumed by the population.The governance system of the civilizations may also account for some of the differences. The Mayas were not dependent on the governance of an Emperor and were able to function as independent cities while the Inca hadÃ a supreme Emperor. This may indeed have held back the development of the Inca as they were dependent on the genius of one individual whereas the Maya were led by several leaders in many cities.Ã These reasons may account for the differences and s imilarities in the Inca and Maya civilizations. These civilizations had many similarities and many differences but were both in their own way and in their own time great in terms of their achievements and development.ReferencesStrohl, M. and S. Schneck. Mayas, Aztecs, Incas: Cooperative Learning Activities. New York: Scholastic Professional Books, 1994.Baquedano, E. Eyewitness Books: Aztec, Inca, and Maya. New York: Alfred A. Knopf,1993.Mesoamerican Civilizations: Mayas and Incas. 24th April, 2007Bleeker, S and Sasaki, K. The Maya: Indians of Central America. Published: Morrow, 1961.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Functional Behaviour Analysis educ6162 - Case Study Example Self expression can also make a child behave in a certain way in order to make her independence very clear. The child can also be in need of some tangible rewards like money which makes her feel good. In order to be accepted, a child might behave in a certain way so as to impress her peers or adults. A childÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior can be in form of revenge in order to get back at others whether it was real or imagined. Finally, a child...Ã¢â¬â¢s behavior is way of escaping from a particular activity or group (Cooper.J.T., and Heward,W 2007). Functional behavior assessment Summary Statements for each Major Trigger and/or Consequence Distant Setting Event Immediate Antecedent (Trigger) Problem Behaviour Maintaining Consequence Function 1 lonely Ignoring the child Sucking and chewing on toys Help her obtain peer attention attention 2 ignored by peers Failing to get a desired object that is visible but out of reach Pulling hair bows and clips Tell her no any time she pulls it and engage her in other activities Acceptance or affiliation 3 change of activity Interrupting the child from an event Pulling away and or dropping on the floor Leave her alone Control 4 There are a lot of people in the room Giving an event that is not preferred by child Leaving designated areas When she walks away appreciate her Escape or avoidance (Briggs, 1993) Support Planning Chart 1 Triggers Behaviours Consequences Ignoring the child Function: attention sucking and chewing toys Interacting with the child She can cause harm to herself Preventions New Skills New Responses Universal Providing her with the right materials for playing teaching her and providing a number of rules for her to follow providing her with engaging activities to avoid being lonely secondary being a role model to the child Inputting the right behaviour to the child To Challenging Behaviour if she stops, praise and if not tell her that the object can cause her harm To New Skills Teach her on how to seek attention appropri ately plan to ignore her not to ignore her when she needs attention social reinforcement teach her appropriate social skills Support Planning Chart 2 Triggers Behaviors Consequences Being ignored by her peers Function: acceptance or affiliation pulling hair bows and clips Her peers talk negatively about her Preventions New Skills New Responses Universal providing her with clear directions when she requires something help her communicate well especially that she suffers from language delay and disability secondary I being a role model to the child is important Ii doing a rehearsal with the child on what is supposed to be done To Challenging Behaviour If sashi responds by requesting the clip praise her if she
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Managerial Economic and Quantitative Analysis - Essay Example Thomas & Maurice, 2007). So in order to obtain the profit equation, total cost equation is subtracted from the total revenue equation (that is, profit = total revenue Ã¢â¬â total cost). However, from the equations given, there is no total cost and total revenue function. In order to obtain a total revenue function of the two firms, the demand function of each firm is integrated, and in order to obtain the total cost of each firm, the average cost function of each firm is integrated. After obtaining the total revenue and total cost functions, it is now possible to obtain the profit function. Economists argue that profits are maximized where total cost balances total revenue. So in order to obtain optimal price and output of each firm working individually, the total cost function is equated to the total revenue function (R. Thomas, C. Thomas & Maurice, 2007). This helps in obtaining the optimal output and price. Optimal price and output may also be obtained through differentiating t he profit function of each firm and equating it to zero, and then solving for the values of price and output. Consider the second case, where the two companies work together. ... Thomas, C. Thomas & Maurice, 2007). Part Two Estimation of the price per plane The estimated price per plane is as follows. price per plane (million $) probability Estimated price per plane (million $) 125 0.25 500 175 0.25 700 225 0.5 450 Optimal output and price when the firms act individually Airbus optimal price and output Airbus demand function is P = 500 Ã¢â¬â 0.0003Q. From this demand function, the total revenue function derived by integrating the demand function is TR = 500Q Ã¢â¬â 0.0003Q2. Airbus has the following Average cost function; AVC = 104.8822Q Ã¢â¬â 0.001Q2 + 0.09 Q3. By integrating this average cost function, a total cost function is obtained; TC = 104.8822Q2 Ã¢â¬â 0.001Q3 + 0.09Q4. In order to determine the optimum quantity and price the profit function is obtained first and then differentiated with respect to output. The profit function obtained is 500Q Ã¢â¬â 104.8825Q2 + 0.001Q3 Ã¢â¬â 0.09Q4. Differentiating this profit function and solving for the value of Q yields the value of Q as 500 M. Hence, substituting the value of Q in the original demand function, the value of P obtained is $ 499.85 M. thus; the optimal values of price and output are $ 499.85 Million and 500 million respectively. Boeing Optimal Output and Price The demand function of the firm is P = 700 Ã¢â¬â 0.00013Q. The total revenue function obtained through integration of the demand function is TR = 700Q Ã¢â¬â 0.00013Q2. The Average cost function of the firm is AVC = 25.8678Q Ã¢â¬â 0.00023Q2 + 0.4Q3. Integration of this function yields TR = 25.8678Q2 Ã¢â¬â 0.00023Q3 + 0.4Q4. From the total revenue and total cost functions, the following profit function is obtained, which is then differentiated and equated to zero in order to obtain the value of Q that is
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
A reflection of Being and Nothingness and Woman as the Other - Essay Example In that literature, Jean-Paul Sartre tries to elucidate an issue which many philosophers overlooked. There is a relation between being and nothingness. And when Sartre posited that Ã¢â¬Å"I am a waiter in the mode of being what I am notÃ¢â¬ (Sartre 388), he somehow implied that anyone who has attended social gatherings, for example a conference, is aware of the fact that competing interests and various levels of understanding of events often subsist. Sartre, therefore, implies that if anything to do with Ã¢â¬Å"temporalityÃ¢â¬ of an event gives precedence to duration. Additionally, that, though, duration may attract different interpretations, it must involve "an organizing activity, which in this case is what the subject awaits but is not interested in. Nonetheless, Kant did not perceive a processing of a variety and the planning event. At stake, for organization concepts, is the channel of Ã¢â¬Å"commonÃ¢â¬ memory, which Sartre argues may not represent all the thinking of t he attendants following an event. In Sartre's concept of temporality and planning, being content with the prevailing events. And this encompasses his philosophies and multiple contributions regarding Being and Nothingness. SartreÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophies highlight the nature of human souls, the social habits such as leisurely activities, work, and grooming, to the styling of human way of life. The Ã¢â¬Å"waiterÃ¢â¬ aspect of the quote is a philosophical word that he uses to imply to a participant in a social event, who does not fully enjoy the happenings.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Memo to Paul Taylor - AM Equipment - Term Paper Example One of the major steps that AM should take is to prepare going global. This entails establishing of various managerial positions that will be responsible for overseeing effective distribution of the products in the new markets. In its efforts to enter the three foreign markets, AM should establish an export sales department. Based on the fact that the company is currently based in US, the export sales department will ensure linkage between the production facilities is US and the sales outlets in the three countries. Additionally, AM should employ skilled marketing managers who will be responsible for overseeing the company subsidiaries located in the foreign countries. One of the advantages of the export sales department and the hiring of experienced marketing managers is that new policies such as effective pricing, extensive promotion and creating strong customer awareness will be created. For instance, the company will emulate penetrative pricing policy (Joshi 47). Through this pol icy, AM will enter the new markets using low prices without compromising the quality of its products. This will ensure that it acquires large customer base. However, the company will need more financial resources to cater for the marketing managers wages. ... After preparing to go global, AM should find the right market that will provide ready market for its products and skilled human resources. One of the key factors to consider is the population of the foreign countries. Additionally, the company should take into consideration the competition, political stability and regulatory environment among other factors. Being one of the developing economies with large population, South Africa is a viable country that AM should enter. In the same way, Britain and Australia have strong economies and high customerÃ¢â¬â¢s purchasing power thus proving a market opportunity that will enhance the sales and the profitability of the company. It is also vital to note that in order to encourage investments, South Africa, Britain and Australia have flexible regulatory environment that is essential for foreign direct investments. For example, South Africa has entered into double taxation agreement with US. As a result, AM will not face a lot of taxation cha llenges that may hinder its operations in the country. Additionally, South Africa taxation for foreign companies stands at 35% which is not so high. One of the major aspect that make the three countries viable markets that AM should consider is that they experience political stability that is essential for foreign and local investments. Even though AM Equipment Incorporation will be exposed to stiff competition from the well established firm in the three countries, the company will undertake extensive advertisement and promotion thus effectively putting at bay its competitors. Based on the political and technological development in the three countries, AM will benefit from adequate availability of classical factors of production that includes labor, capital, land and
Sunday, August 25, 2019
The Right of Due Process Guaranteed by the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution - Research Paper Example One of the principles that is represented in the Constitution is the right to due process which is given in the Fifth and the Fourteenth Amendments. The Fourteenth Amendment expands on the Fifth applying it to a broader audience. Due process is related to how laws are applied and how they are enforced. For example, if an individual has committed a criminal act for which they need to be penalized, they cannot just be thrown in jail, there has to be the process that is under law. In this case the process involves using a warrant, a trial, and sentencing among other steps. Operating without this process is not only illegal in the example, but it is also unconstitutional. While due process is guaranteed by the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution, the exact meaning of due process is not clearly established. The ambiguity has meant decisions within the Supreme Court as to the meaning of the phrase and whether it applied to the cases that were being heard at the time. These decisions have helped to shape the current interpretation of the law such as the right of defendants to have representation and for accused to be made aware of their rights before questioning. However, some recent Supreme Court decisions appear to go against the right of due process set forth in the constitution. Background The United States was founded by Europe, and as a consequence was governed by them. Because of the great distance and the disinterest of the British government in its colonists the rule that England exercised over the colonies was mild, at least initially. The desire for change came at the end of the war between the French settlers and the British colonists when the British government demanded taxes from the colonists as payment for the men that it had supplied. The desire to tax the colonists, without allowing them representation in the British courts was one of the reasons for the American Revolution. The revolution began in 1776 and the colonists declared the ir independence from their founding country, choosing instead to be ruled by law from within. The Constitution promised rights to all Americans regardless of class and rates and detailed the system of government for America, one that served the people rather than serving itself . The Constitution forbids any individual being deprived of Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦life, liberty, or property, without due process of the law...Ã¢â¬ This right is cited both within the Fifth and the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. The Fifth Amendment applied these rights only to federal courts, while this was expanded for the Fourteenth Amendment to include all states. Due process is not specifically defined within the Constitution, but is generally perceived to mean a judicial procedure that is just and fair, most commonly a trial before peers . It is an important concept and it applies in a wide number of legal cases. What is Due Process? While the Amendments guarantee due process the intention and the legal application of the term is not simple to determine. In particular, the word Ã¢â¬ËdueÃ¢â¬â¢ within the phrase raises significant contention. Is a process Ã¢â¬ËdueÃ¢â¬â¢ if it is within current laws, such as the requirements under law for a trial before
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Problem Questions - Essay Example This is whereby more than one person have right of ownership of the same property regardless of the share of each person(s) in the property. However, each person has distinct rights of possession in the property from the other co-owners though they all have absolute right to the entire property. Under common tenancy, each of the co-owners has right to do what they wishes with their right of ownership to the property. Therefore, co-owners can pass their right to the possession of the property to their heirs if they so wish or can even sell their property any time they fill like. Under such situation, the third party who has inherited or has purchased the property from another person will acquire absolute right of co-ownership with the other existing co-owners. Under common tenancy, each co-owner has personal liability for payment of the property rates, maintenance fees and refurbishment cost. However, if one of the co-owners bears the entire refurbishment and maintenance charges, they have a right to claim for reimbursement from the other co-owners. ... He also paid for the repair of the house and for installation of a new kitchen as well as for electricity and gas bills from his own earnings. However, there was no agreement to show the form of relationship that existed in the ownership of the estate either at present or in the future. According to their agreement, the estate was written in the name of Amaryllis.3 They have continued to live in the same house since then. In my view, by the virtue of their conduct and mutual agreement to live together the two co-owners had entered in a common tenancy. Under this form of ownership, there was no distinction as to what proportion of the property each of the two owns. Both Amaryllis and Basil have equal access to the property and can do anything they wish with the property. However, the parties should be careful with their deeds in order to avoid infringing the rights of each party.4 Therefore, each of the party may use the property according to their wishes, but should not interfere wit h the right of the other party. Under common tenancy, each of the co-owner of the property has a right to sell or to transfer the right to another person.5 Under such a situation, the third party to whom the property has been transferred to acquire absolute light similar to that which was held by the previous owner. In the light of this information, it can be argued that in the situation where Amaryllis invited her cousin Cecily to live in the estate with her, Amaryllis agreed to share her right in the property with Basil, but Cecily had no so such right as long as Amaryllis was in the estate.6 Therefore, Cecily could only enjoy limited rights as a share of what Amaryllis enjoyed and should in no way appear to enjoy
Friday, August 23, 2019
Pilgrimage's Role in Development of Buddhism in Japan - Essay Example The Kumano within the Southern Wakayama Prefecture ended up becoming a large center for pilgrims and adherents of Shugendo Sect during Heina Period. Some other significantly important pilgrimages at the time were to Mt. Koya, Hasedera (Kyoto) and Shitenno-jiÃ (Osaka) (Swanson & Chilson 2006). Between 160 and 1868 AD, during the Edo Period, the number of persons making pilgrimages to Shinto Shrines and Buddhist temples increased rapidly, particularly to the Kotohira Shrine, the Ise Shrine, the 88 Shikoku temples, Zenkoji (Nagano), Mt. Fuji (Shizuoka), and the Kiso Ontake (Nagoya) (ReynoldsÃ 2001; Covell 2005). One phenomenon during Edo Era was the special pilgrimage to Ise-Jingu Shrine, known as Okage Mairi. The tradition of Okage Mairi has continued to be unabated even the contemporary Japanese society, with approximately 6 million people paying a visit to Ise Jingu Shrines per annum. Perhaps behind the phenomenon lies some nostalgic past: Resurgent interest in the region and som e desire for a temporary escape from the over-crowded urban settings (Alisal, Ackermann, Dolores 2007). Pilgrimage and Development of Buddhism The history of pilgrimage in Japan could be traced back to the early years, at least by the era of Nara, between 7610-794 AD. The pilgrimages flourished during the initial day, through Heian era (947-1185). At the time, the aristocrats and the imperial family were the most active pilgrims (Kaempfer 1995). During the latter days of the ninth century, the imperial family members took some interest in the religious visits to various shrines in the country and the temples that existed outside Japanese capital of Kyoto. From the late tenth century, the custom became adopted by the aristocrats, to a certain... The development of pilgrimages within Japanese society could greatly be conditioned to geographical, cultural, religious or topographical factors. There were there primary types of pilgrimages among the Japanese: Pilgrimage to the sacred mountains, pilgrimage to the shrines and temples based on the enshrined divinities and pilgrims to the sacred places, which are based on special powers of charismatic persons such as Buddha. The pilgrimages to the sacred mountains were founded on Buddhist notion of jiriki, self power, an idea that made those who are self strong via ascetic practices. Buddhists believed that there was a need of training for one to obtain some special powers, which were acquired through regular visits to the holy mountains. The non-Buddhists specialists like the healers, the ascetics and the shamans as well as the greater public also acquired the special powers. During the Middle Ages (twelfth and eleventh) aristocrats believed in pilgrimages to the sacred mountains to help them experience Pure Land while they were still living. Moreover, it was believed that kami of the mountains were manifestations of the Buddhists divinities; they were merely special ascetics, and would be guided by the aristocrats within the region. By the nineteenth century, there were more that 17,000 senior guides that were familiar with the sacred mountains. Even as the aristocracy and courtship declined during the initial days of Tokugawa era, there was a novel phenomenon emerging in already existing mountain pilgrimage beliefs. There were four major pilgrimage sites that had been recommended by Buddha.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Legal Abortion - Essay Example Only the individual can disseminate the information and make their own decision based on what they believe to be right but everyone should know both sides on equal terms so as to make the decision that is right for them. This paper will first present the Ã¢â¬Ëright-to-lifeÃ¢â¬â¢ then follow with the Ã¢â¬Ëpro-choiceÃ¢â¬â¢ argument. The right to choose is the foundation upon which this country was built. Those who are pro-abortion trumpet this slogan while proclaiming a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËGod given rightÃ¢â¬â¢ to make her own choices without government interference. This simple ideology is embraced by some but the arguments are flawed when the realities of abortion are examined. Studies have shown that most women are coerced into committing this murderous act of a living human and that there is no such thing as safe abortions as many are led to believe. Pro-abortion proponents generally espouse that the rights of a non-living tissue that feels no pain are non-existent. This discussion exposes these untruths that have been reported and are widely perceived as facts. It also explains the framersÃ¢â¬â¢ intent for the legal and moral direction of American society when they drafted the Constitution, the document that defines the laws of the nation. There is little freedom of choice for women who are experiencing an unwanted pregnancy. The women themselves usually wish to bring their baby to full term. Other powerful influences in her life such as husbands/boyfriends, parents and friends are generally the forces that exact pressures on her to terminate the pregnancy. Ã¢â¬Å"Eight out of 10 women surveyed after abortion said they would have given birth if theyÃ¢â¬â¢d had support and encouragement from family and friendsÃ¢â¬ (Reardon, 2002). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the abortion that, in many cases, is unwanted by the woman, not the baby.
Optical Computing Essay Jainam Shah Kalol Institute Of Technology, Kalol, Gujarat, India. [emailprotected] AbstractÃ¢â¬âOptics has been used in computing for a number of years but the main emphasis has been and continues to be to link portions of computers, for communications, or more intrinsically in devices that have some optical application or component (optical pattern recognition, etc). Optical digital computers are still some years away, however a number of devices that can ultimately lead to real optical computers have already been manufactured, including optical logic gates, optical switches, optical interconnections, and optical memory. The most likely near-term optical computer will really be a hybrid composed of traditional architectural design along with some portions that can perform some functional operations in optical mode. Computing applications as a consequence of faster processing speed, as well as better connectivity and higher bandwidth. II. NEED FOR OPTICAL COMPUTING The pressing need for optical technology stems from the fact that todayÃ¢â¬â¢s computers are limited by the time response of electronic circuits. A solid transmission medium limits both the speed and volume of signals, as well as building up heat that damages components. One of the theoretical limits on how fast a computer can function is given by EinsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s principle that signal cannot propagate faster than speed of light. So to make computers faster, their components must be smaller and there by decrease the distance between them. This has resulted in the development of very large scale integration (VLSI) technology, with smaller device dimensions and greater complexity. The smallest dimensions of VLSI nowadays are about 0.08mm. Despite the incredible progress in the development and refinement of the basic technologies over the past decade, there is growing concern that these technologies may not be capable of solving the computing problems of even the current millennium. The speed of computers was achieved by miniaturizing electronic components to a very small micron-size scale, but they are limited not only by the speed of electrons in matter but also by the increasing density of interconnections necessary to link the electronic gates on microchips. The optical computer comes as a solution of miniaturization problem. Optical data processing can perform several operations in parallel much faster and easier than electrons. This parallelism helps in staggering computational power. For example a calculation that takes a conventional electronic computer more than 11 years to complete could be performed by an optical computer in a single hour. Any way we can realize that in an optical computer, electrons are rep laced by photons, the subatomic bits of electromagnetic radiation that make up light. I. INTRODUCTION With the growth of computing technology the need of high performance computers (HPC) has significantly increased. Optics has been used in computing for a number of years but the main emphasis has been and continues to be to link portions of computers, for communications, or more intrinsically in devices that have some optical application or component (optical pattern recognition etc.) Optical computing was a hot research area in 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s.But the work tapered off due to materials limitations that prevented opt chips from getting small enough and cheap enough beyond laboratory curiosities. Now, optical computers are back with advances in self-assembled conducting organic polymers that promise super-tiny of all optical chips. Optical computing technology is, in general, developing in two directions. One approach is to build computers that have the same architecture as present day computers but using optics that is Electro optical hybrids. Another approach is to generate a completely new kind of computer, which can perform all functional operations in optical mode. In recent years, a number of devices that can ultimately lead us to real optical computers have already been manufactured. These include optical logic gates, optical switches, optical interconnections and optical memory. Current trends in optical computing emphasize communications, for example the use of free space optical interconnects as a potential solution to remove Ã¢â¬ËBottlenecksÃ¢â¬â¢ experienced in electronic architectures. Optical technology is one of the most promising, and may eventually lead to new III. SOME KEY OPTICAL COMPONENTS FOR COMPUTING The major breakthroughs on optical computing have been centered on the development of micro-optic devices for data input. A. VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) VCSEL (pronounced Ã¢â¬ËvixelÃ¢â¬â¢) is a semiconductor vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode that emits light in a cylindrical beam vertically from the surface of a fabricated wafer, and offers significant advantages when compared to the edge-emitting lasers currently used in the majority of fiber optic communications devices. The principle involved in the operation of a VCSEL is very similar to those of regular lasers. Fig. 2. Optical Interconnection Of Circuit Boards Using Vcsel And Photodiode VCSEL convert the electrical signal to optical signal when the light beams are passed through a pair of lenses and micromirrors. Micromirrors are used to direct the light beams and this light rays is passed through a polymer waveguide which serves as the path for transmitting data instead of copper wires in electronic computers. Then these optical beams are again passed through a pair of lenses and sent to a photodiode. This photodiode convert the optical signal back to the electrical signal. B. SLM (Spatial Light Modulators) SLM play an important role in several technical areas where the control of light on a pixel-by-pixel basis is a key element, such as optical processing and displays. 1) SLM For Display Purposes Fig. 1. Two semiconductor materials sandwiching an active layer There are two special semiconductor materials sandwiching an active layer where all the action takes place. But rather than reflective ends, in a VCSEL there are several layers of partially reflective mirrors above and below the active layer. Layers of semiconductors with differing compositions create these mirrors, and each mirror reflects a narrow range of wavelengths back in to the cavity in order to cause light emission at just one wavelength. For display purposes the desire is to have as many pixels as possible in as small and cheap a device as possible. For such purposes designing silicon chips for use as spatial light modulators has been effective. The basic idea is to have a set of memory cells laid out on a regular grid. These cells are electrically connected to metal mirrors, such that the voltage on the mirror depends on the value stored in the memory cell. A layer of optically active liquid crystal is sandwiched between this array of mirrors and a piece of glass with a conductive coating. The voltage between individual mirrors and the front electrode affects the optical activity of liquid crystal in that neighborhood. Hence by being able to individually program the memory locations one can set up a pattern of optical activity in the liquid crystal layer. C. Smart Pixel Technology Smart pixel technology is a relatively new approach to integrating electronic circuitry and optoelectronic devices in a common framework. The purpose is to leverage the advantages of each individual technology and provide improved performance for specific applications. Here, the electronic circuitry provides complex functionality and programmability while the optoelectronic devices provide high-speed switching and compatibility with existing optical media. Arrays of these smart pixels leverage the parallelism of optics for interconnections as well as computation. A smart pixel device, a light emitting diode under the control of a field effect transistor can now be made entirely out of organic materials on the same substrate for the first time. In general, the benefit of organic over conventional semiconductor electronics is that they should lead to cheaper, lighter, circuitry that can be printed rather than etched. D. WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) Wavelength division multipl exing is a method of sending many different wavelengths down the same optical fiber. Using this technology, modern networks in which individual lasers can transmit at 10 gigabits per second through the same fiber at the same time. which interact with light and modulate its properties. Several of the optical components require efficient-nonlinear materials for their operations. What in fact restrains the widespread use of all optical devices is the in efficiency of currently available nonlinear materials, which require large amount of energy for responding or switching. Organic materials have many features that make them desirable for use in optical devices such as 1) High nonlinearities 2) Flexibility of molecular design 3) Damage resistance to optical radiations Some organic materials belonging to the classes of phthalocyanines and polydiacetylenes are promising for optical thin films and wave guides. These compounds exhibit strong electronic transitions in the visible region and have high chemical and thermal stability up to 400 degree Celsius. Polydiacetylenes are among the most widely investigated class of polymers for nonlinear optical applications. Their subpicosecond time response to laser signals makes them candidates for high-speed optoelectronics and information processing. To make thin polymer film for electro-optic applications, NASA scientists dissolve a monomer (the building block of a polymer) in an organic solvent. This solution is then put into a growth cell with a quartz window, shining a laser through the quartz can cause the polymer to deposit in specific pattern. V. ADVANCES IN PHOTONIC SWITCHES Logic gates are the building blocks of any digital system. An optical logic gate is a switch that controls one light beam by another; it is ON when the device transmits light and it is OFF when it blocks the light. Fig. 3. a. Wave length division multiplexing b. A WDM System WDM can transmit up to 32 wavelengths through a single fiber, but cannot meet the bandwidth requirements of the present day communication systems. So nowadays DWDM (Dense wavelength division multiplexing) is used. This can transmit up to 1000 wavelengths through a single fiber. That is by using this we can improve the bandwidth efficiency. IV. ROLE OF NLO IN OPTICAL COMPUTING The role of nonlinear materials in optical computing has become extremely significant. Non-linear materials are those, Fig. 4. Optical AND-logic gate To demonstrate the AND gate in the phthalocyanine film, two focused collinear laser beams are wave guided through a thin film of phthalocyanine. Nanosecond green pulsed Nd:YAG laser was used together with a red continuous wave (cw) He-Ne beam. At the output a narrow band filter was set to block the green beam and allow only the He-Ne beam. Then the transmitted beam was detected on an oscilloscope. It was found that the transmitted He-Ne cw beam was pulsating with a nanosecond duration and in synchronous with the input Nd:YAG nanosecond pulse. This demonstrated the characteristic table of an AND logic gate. A. Optical and Gate In an optical NAND gate the phthalocyanine film is replaced by a hollow fiber filled with polydiacetylene. Nd:YAG green picoseconds laser pulse was sent collinearly with red cw He-Ne laser onto one end of the fiber. At the other end of the fiber a lens was focusing the output on to the narrow slit of a monochromatic with its grating set for the red He-Ne laser. When both He-Ne laser and Nd:YAG laser are present there will be no output at the oscilloscope. If either one or none of the laser beams are present we get the output at the oscilloscope showing NAND function. faster read-out rates. This research is expected to lead to compact, high capacity, rapid-and random-access, and low power and low cost data storage devices necessary for future intelligent spacecraft. The SLMs are used in optical data storage applications. These devices are used to write data into the optical storage medium at high speed. Fig. 6. Optical Disk More conventional approaches to holographic storage use ion doped lithium niobate crystals to store pages of data. For audio recordings ,a 150MBminidisk with a 2.5- in diameter has been developed that uses special compression to shrink a standard CDÃ¢â¬â¢s640-MB storage capacity onto the smaller polymer substrate. It is rewritable and uses magnetic field modulation on optical material. The mini disc uses one of the two methods to write information on to an optical disk. With the mini disk a magnetic field placed behind the optical disk is modulated while the intensity of the writing laser is held constant. By switching the polarity of the magnetic field while the laser creates a state of flux in the optical material digital data can be recorded on a single layer. As with all optical storage media a read laser retrieves the data. A. Working The 780nm light emitted from AlGaAs/GaAs laser diodes is collimated by a lens and focused to a diameter of about 1micrometer on the disk. If the re is no pit where the light is incident, it is reflected at the Al mirror of the disk and returns to the lens, the depth of the pit is set at a value such that the difference between the path of the light reflected at a pit and the Fig. 5. Optical NAND-logic gate VI. OPTICAL MEMORY In optical computing two types of memory are discussed. One consists of arrays of one-bit-store elements and other is mass storage, which is implemented by optical disks or by holographic storage systems. This type of memory promises very high capacity and storage density. The primary benefits offered by holographic optical data storage over current storage technologies include significantly higher storage capacities and path of light reflected at a mirror is an integral multiple of halfwavelength consequently, if there is a pit where light is incident, the amount of reflected light decreases tremendously because the reflected lights are almost cancelled by interference. The incident and reflected beams pass through the quarter wave plate and all reflected light is introduced to the photodiode by the beam splitter because of the polarization rotation due to the quarter wave plate. By the photodiode the reflected light, which as a signal whether, a pit is on the disk or not is changed into an electrical signal. VII. APPLICATIONS 1) High speed communications: The rapid growth of internet, expanding at almost 15% per month, demands faster speeds and larger bandwidth than electronic circuits can provide. Terabits speeds are needed to accommodate the growth rate of internet since in optical computers data is transmitted at the speed of light which is of the order of 3.10*8 m/sec hence terabit speeds are attainable. 2) Optical crossbar interconnects are used in asynchronous transfer modes and Shared memory multiprocessor systems. 3) Process satellite data. VIII. MERITS 1) Optical computing is at least 1000 to 100000 times faster than todayÃ¢â¬â¢s silicon machines. 2) Optical storage will provide an extremely optimized way to store data, with space requirements far lesser than todayÃ¢â¬â¢s silicon chips. 3) Super fast searches through databases. 4) No short circuits, light beam can cross each other without interfering with each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s data 5) Light beams can travel in parallel and no limit to number of packets that can travel in the photonic circuits. 6) Optical computer removes the bottleneck in the present day Communication system IX. DRAWBACKS 1) TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s materials require much high power to work in consumer products, coming up with the right materials may take five years or more. 2) Optical computing using a coherent source is simple to compute and understand, but it has many drawbacks like any imperfections or dust on the optical components will create unwanted interference pattern due to scattering effects. Incoherent processing on the other hand cannot store phase information. X. SOME CURRENT RESEARCH High performance computing has gained momentum in recent years, with efforts to optimize all the resources of electronic computing and researcher brain power in order to increase computing throughput. Optical computing is a topic of current support in many places, with private companies as well as governments in several countries encouraging such research work. A group of researchers from the University of Southern California, jointly with a team from the University of California, los angles, have developed an organic polymer with a switching frequency of 60 GHz. This is three times faster than the current industry standard, lithium niobate crystal based device. Another group at brown university and the IBM, Alma den research center has used ultrafast laser pulses to build ultra fast data storage devices. This group was able to achieve ultra fast switching down to 100 picoseconds. In Japan , NEC has developed a method for interconnecting circuit boards optically using VCSEL arrays .Another researchers at NTT have designed an optical backplane with free-space optical interconnects using tunable beam deflectors and mirrors. The project achieved 1000 interconnections per printed circuit board; with a throughput ranging from 1 to 10 Tb/s. XI. FUTURE TRENDS The Ministry of Information Technology has initiated a photonic development program. Under this program some funded projects are continuing in fiber optic high-speed network systems. Research is going on for developing Fig.7. Use of optical devices in future New laser diodes, photo detectors, and nonlinear material studies for faster switches. Research efforts on an particle thin film or layer studies for display devices are also in progress. At the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Mumbai, efforts are in progress to generate a white light source from a diode case based fiber amplifier system in order to provide WDM communication channels. XII. CONCLUSION Research in optical computing has opened up new possibilities in several fields related to high performance computing, high-speed communications. To design algorithms that execute applications faster, the specific properties of optics must be considered, such as their ability to exploit massive parallelism, and global interconnections. As optoelectronic and smart pixel devices mature, software development will have a major impact in the future and the ground rules for the computing may have to be rewritten. XIII. REFERENCES   See for example: Chemical and Engineering ews, Photonic Crystals. Assembled on Chip, 79(47), 31 (2001). P. Boffi, D. Piccinin, M.C. Ubaldi, (Eds.), Infrared Holography for Optical CommunicationsÃ¢â¬â echniques,MaterialsandDevices,SpringerTopics in Applied Physics: Vol 86, July 2002. Alain Goulet, Makoto Naruse, and Masatoshi Ishikawa, Simple integration technique to realize parallel optical interconnects: implementation of a pluggable two-dimensional optical data link, Applied Optics 41, 5538 (2002) Tushar Mahapatra, Sanjay Mishra, Oracle Parallel Processing, OReilly Associates, Inc., Sebastopol, California, USA, 2000. S. J. van Enk, J. McKeever, H. J. Kimble, and J. Ye, Cooling of a single atom in an optical trap inside a resonator, Phys. Rev. A 64, 013407 (2001). A. Dodabalapur, Z. Bao, A. Makhija, J. G. Laquindanum, V. R. Raju, Y. Feng, H. E. Katz, and J. Rogers, Organic smart pixels, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 142 (1998). Henning Sirringhaus, Nir Tessler, and Richard H. Fr iend, Integrated Optoelectronic Devices Based on Conjugated Polymers, Science 280, 1741 (1988).
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
The effectiveness of dispute resolution techniques as used in hong kong Construction in the past Years ago a construction project was a relatively simple arrangement. The owner retained an architect or engineer to develop the design and prepare the specifications for the desired project. The owner and architect or engineer then engaged the general contractor to perform the physical construction of the work leaving the methods of performance to him or her. Contractors and subcontractors were relatively straight forward, simple agreements without extensive exculpatory clauses. At that time, contracts were completed with appropriate time extensions with liquidated damages or pay for delay are depending of who was responsible for delay. Usually the work was of excellent quality because all parties of the team were working together. Nowadays, everything among the construction industry become complex and likewise resulted in a complex dispute resolution whether for a settlement of minor issue. Construction Claims In many construction projects, the argument always arisen among the parties, i.e., in between the contractor, consultant, material supplier and employer and in relation to the conditions of contracts, construction design, buildability, construction methodology and construction standard and etc. Likewise the argument will gradually step into a claim as the parties are intents to preserve their rights, interest and responsibilities as the argument of the works will always result delay and disruption to the construction progress and consequently incurred in an additional time and cost to the project under several particular circumstances. Nowadays, the construction projects are becoming more and more complex due to the innovation, evolution and technology development in the industry, the understanding and interpretation of the project requirement may differs among the parties (Malak and Saadi and Zeid 2002). In the meantime, the increased complexity of construction project, the construction processes, specification, documents and conditions of contracts has been contribution to higher possibilities of conflict that results a higher frequency of claims issue. There are many different types of construction claims are into categories relative to terms and generally defined in a contract. The parties are required to process the claim in accordance with the requirement specified in the main contract. Normally the claims are raised by the contractor as they were the first party acknowledge the construction progress is delay or disrupted by some kinds of event and responsible to identify the circumstances for reporting to the employer. The employer will then require assessing the claim issue. However, the basis of the identification of claims issue is often not exhaust enough by the contractor and therefore the employer will have a difficulty during the assessment process that results an adverse desire to the claimant, which is the contractor. Consequently, the claims cannot satisfy the claimant by extension of time or additional money during the construction period and become a higher degree of dispute that is requires further dispute resoluti on. All claims have the potential to be time consuming and expensive once the claims has different understanding among the employer and contractor (Barnard 2005). To reduce the potential time cost and expensive, usually the associated parties in the claims will proposed to a dispute resolution, i.e., Litigation, Mediation, Conciliation, Adjudication, Arbitration and etc. for minimize the unnecessary cost. Though these dispute resolutions are very common, the effectiveness is questioned by the industry due to the higher cost and time are still required for processing these resolutions. Research Aim, Objective(s), Hypotheses AIM The aim of this research paper is to investigate the effectiveness of dispute resolution techniques as used in Hong Kong. And, the investigation is concentrate on the review and quantifying the process and outcome effectiveness of one of the common use dispute resolution Mediation. OBJECTIVES * To conduct a critical review of literature relating to the definition and process of Mediation. * To conduct a critical review of literature relating to the history of dispute resolution of Mediation in Hong Kong. To review and investigate existing common use of dispute resolutions in Hong Kong. * To research and detail the actual processes, the difference in between these dispute resolutions, analyse the advantage and disadvantage of these dispute resolutions and summerise the general conclusion of these resolutions. * To collect data by face to face interview through the professional body that has experience involves in construction claims and mediation process. * To summerise and analyse the effectiveness of mediation which in the basis of time cost and reflection by the disputants. * To draw conclusion on the quantified effectiveness of mediation to testify the recognition by the construction industry and evaluate the future development of the applicable of mediation. Literature Review How claims propagate to a dispute A claim may be defines as a request, demand, application for payment of notification of presumed entitlement to which the (claimant), rightly or wrongly at this stage, considers himself entitled and in respect of which an agreement has not yet been reached (Barber and Hughes, 1992). For protect their own interest, the claimant will promptly reserves his rights to claim and presents a detailed account of the claims only a the need of the project where they can take advantage of any losses and delays and incorporate them into a claims. Therefore, the prevalence of the reservation of rights approach a construction claims. Normally, the contractor is the host and navigate the claims as the change to the project is always request by their employer, owner, consultant, employer or employers representative and the proof of contractor is breach the contract by the employer is often a difficult task (Hassanein and Nemr 2007). The change orders were the most prevalent causes of claims. The frequent appearance of a change order on a project is due to the engineer do a less thorough job in the design and planning stage and thereafter, the employer try to minimum the costs by not planning the project as real-time since initial planning. As a result the employer is put in a position where they are less likely to anticipate adverse conditions before they arise and are less capable of dealing with the variable. Accordingly, numerous cases had been reported about the contractor was received direct inductions from the employers representative or consultants due to their poor management in the pre-contract phase and outdate realization of the project. The consequence was additional incurred expenses. The increasing scope of work and poorly coordinated designs result change order and easier to propagate a construction claims. In addition, the differing site conditions, defective construction documents, suspensions of the work at the direction of the employer or consultant, wrongful delays in handling shop drawings, late deliveries of owner-furnished equipment and materials, interference by other prime contractors, lack of site access and etc. are easier to constitute a contractor claims once the poor management practice occurs in the employers team. The construction project is often delayed by the change and a claim may arise on account of a delay disruption. The nature of the construction claims leads to adversarial relationships regarding impacts and changes and often results in disputes. Background of Mediation The settlement of disputes arising from construction industry by methods other than litigation is common practice. The main reason for this is, where the substantial questions of the dispute are matters of fact rather than of law, a final and conclusive decision can be obtained in a manner which is quicker and cheaper than the formal legal. Construction disputes have used mediation since 1985 (Phillips, 1997). Compared to litigation, mediation has proved to be a faster, less expensive, more confidential, and more satisfactory way to resolve disputes. There is a national trend in favor of alternative methods of dispute resolution and away from the trench warfare style of litigation which has become so costly in recent decades. Mediation reflects a shift in the balance of power between employers and their lawyers. In scorched earth litigation the dispute is in the hands of litigators whose strength lies in motion practice and mammoth discover regimens. Mediation cuts through the posturing and tactics of litigation to get the merits of the dispute, where the employer is more of an authority, and to get to settlement negotiations, where the employer controls decision making (Fisher 1994). In fact, Mediation is a popular mode of dispute resolution in the United States (Bush and Folger 1994). As it is a non binding, consensual process of resolving conflicts through settlement conferences expedited by an impartial third party who facilitates negotiations (stories and their interpretation) between the disputants (Gillie et al. 1991;Rondeno and Rumbaugh 1999). Mediation may be considered a form of distributive justice, even though the contending parties control the discussion of the conflict and is ultimate resolution. It can be entered into voluntarily or as a result of a court order, and it does not bind the parties in any way other than by mutual agreement. Obviously, the mediation has been introduced and widely applied as a settlement method of dispute to construction industry for more than twenty years. As mediation describes a voluntary process which either side may abandon at any time without prejudice, whereby each side to a dispute is brought together before a neutral mediator, whose function is to assist the parties to arrive at common position by joint open session and private caucus (Hills 1995). During this process the mediator acts only as catalyst, not expressing his or her own opinion and not disclosing confidential information imparted by one of the parties, to the other. Through this process the parties move closer together until they reach a common position when settlement is reached. Because the mediation process itself is non binding and entirely without prejudice, it is necessary to record the agreement, in contract form, if it is to have legal effect. Although mediation is not regulated process, some rules do exist and are published by a few organizations that is applicable to Hong Kong construction industry. For example, the Construction Industry Mediation Rules published by the National Arbitration Committee in the United States, and the Hong Kong Government Mediation Rules published by the Government of Hong Kong. Mediation Process The Mediation is begins with the agreement of disputants that intents to settle certain amount of money and employ a mutually agreed mediator to commence mediated meeting to define issues and confirm each sides commitment. Agreement to mediate in the event of a dispute is either through terms of the contract (such as a mediation clause), or by mutual consent when the dispute arises. More commonly, one party approaches the mediation company to begin mediation proceeding. A representative then contracts the other side inviting them to cooperate in a mediation and consequence assists the disputants in negotiating a settlement. This is a form of collective decision making in which the mediator facilitates voluntary agreements between the parties in dispute. During this decision making process, the mediator compiles information, evaluates alternatives, and makes suggestions to the disputants aiming for a consensual agreement. The mediator will meet each party in turn to assist them to exa mine and highlight the respective strengths, and weaknesses of their case and, if he is so authorized, carry offers from one side to the other until the parties reach a common position, as a result, the mediator helps in breaking barriers and pulling communalities. In these contexts, mediation is regarded as nonthreatening, and effective in suppressing or even settling construction dispute. Thus, mediation is used because of the prospect of achieving settlements that are mutually satisfying, win-win situation, cost effective, flexible, speedy, confidential, and voluntary. At this point a settlement is usually agreed and, if the parties so wish, a contract will be drawn up to make the terms of the settlement legally binding (Hills 1995). Why Mediation This method is aimed to employ an independent third party for assist to agreed certain specified desires from the disputants in a short time and most likely they will satisfy the mediation result as the lightly litigation is applied and cost saving in comparing with other dispute resolutions. And, mediation can restart the usual course of construction claim resolution by carving out one or more of the simpler claims for early agreement. Even if the parties cannot agree that those compromises will be paid right away, at least they can stipulate that they will be paid as part of any arbitration award or court judgment. The real value of such partial settlements is that they improve the atmosphere. They demonstrate to each side that the other is acting on good faith and deserves some credibility. A good mediation advocate helps identify the clients real interests and needs, so that it is possible for the parties to reach a bargain. For example, a contractor may be less interested in mon ey than in having additional time to complete the job, or in obtaining future work, while the owner wants the project completed as quickly and as economically as possible. Because the parties craft their own settlement, they are more likely to honor their agreement voluntarily. Mediation also provides a forum wherein the aggrieved party can present its position or defense directly to the opposing party rather than through an attorney (Trantina 2001), thereby giving the aggrieved party voice or recognition of being heard. Also, mediation can preserve the partys relationship (Lederman 1997). Mediation display of commercial acumen and far from being soft, it is a continuous process of structured, condensed, guided and intense negotiation requiring quickness of mind, flexibility and imaginative thinking. And mediation can be used at the same time as litigation or arbitration procedures or can replace litigation. So it is possible to litigate or arbitrate to show serious intentions but t o negotiate with mediation to get a better result. Even the mediation fails, it has more benefits than risks. Mediation can be tried fast and at little extra cost. Parties are free to leave the process if it is unproductive (Harmon 2003). At the same time, using mediation helps clarify the issues, helps with preparation for trial or further negotiations and encourages a realistic assessment of the case more rapidly than the adversarial process. Conclusion The principle finding of this paper is aimed to have a brief review of an understanding of mediation in construction industry. An investigation is also held for realised the consequential effect is resulted by construction claims to the industry. Nevertheless, the outcome of initial finding on the literature review is not ideal as original thought. The construction claims detailed in many literature papers are mainly focusing on the claims effect how delay and disrupt the project that very limited reports are specified, i.e., the outcome effect of mediation, the problematic occurs during the mediation. For the research aim regarding dispute resolution in this report is assess the effectiveness of the mediation. As this report is only focusing the dispute resolution on Mediation, quite a lot of literature reports actually already have concluded the effectiveness of this resolution methods. Unfortunately the concluded result is limited to list out the advantage and disadvantage of this resolution and leads to have a personal (author) bias which seems not neutrally enough(Yiu Cheung Mok 2006). Furthermore, it is not difficult to have the knowledge of the process of dispute resolution but the key information or real mediated case is hard to obtain. Most likely the reason is mediation is not open to public. As a result, the critical information of real case for consolidates substantiation to this report is relatively very limited. In summary, the topic actually has a greatly development space as the gap of the above said research objective do exist in the industry. The general description on the outcome effect of mediation by limited reference to real dispute case is the key finding during this investigation of literature review. And as above mentioned the papers are only listed out the particulars of the mediation without any consolidated data, i.e., amount to settle, time consumed and cost of mediation. Accordingly, the mediation application has not been clear identified for which scale or what kind of disputes. The difficulty of data collection is recognised and foreseeable. Thus, the further development of the final report will be initially focusing on the real case data collection and the development of quantify effectiveness of mediation. Methodology Based on the concerning to the objectives of this research paper, the research methodology is considerate to choose combining a case study and face to face interview with associated professional body in the construction industry who has similar experience that involves in the construction claims and mediation process. The presentation of a case study can reflected the cause and consequence of a claims event as a full story broad and accordingly indicate how the claims falls into a dispute. From the review of the claims process by a case study method, we can easier to understand the fundamental reason why the claims event is arisen and defining the claims type or determining the validity of claims by the point of view as an external third party. Thereafter, based on the stances of the relevant parties on the claims can evaluate the necessarily of the dispute as the claims somehow is without any contractual ground backup but become as a dispute shortly. For the method of face to face interview that is an effectiveness and straight forward path to obtain the result. The professional bodies who has experience on a claims and mediation process are able to tell what the consequence and subsequence of a construction claims and how the dispute resolution process. Moreover, the method for assess the effectiveness of the dispute resolution is by quantified the time cost by these peoples contributed on each case. The case study will select the construction project that has a dispute for detail analysis and illustrate the disputes among the construction industry in Hong Kong. The case study will be considered a recent completed bridge project in Hong Kong. This project is one of the longest cable stayed bridges in the world. The bridge was just completed recently and has 2 years delay from the originally planning. Mediation has had been carried out for settle the claims dispute in early construction stage. For the face to face interviewer selection, it is very depend on the availability of those personnel. Nevertheless, the target interviewer is decide to meet minimum 4 professional body involved in this project, assuming the key data can be obtained among these professional body. Restraints/Limitations In this research paper, it can be foreseeable the difficulty to systemize and identify the dispute nature among the construction industry. Initially, to collect the claims issue event from the as-built real construction project is time consuming and require lots of contacts to meet this objective but the outcome may not be satisfied to achieve the original idea as the industry always keep the claims as a confidential issue and not open to irrelative parties. Eventhough the claims was settled completely and not necessary proceed to kinds of litigation or arbitration, the information regarding the settlement definitely involves a sum of monies that the industry still inclined not to release the details as a reference for any further similar claims. Whilst the peoples who involves in the claims process of a construction project are very limited to Claims consultancy, Q.S. or senior manager. These peoples are always difficult to reach and as the industry norms, the fact of the claims event may not present thorough. It means the realistic of claims event may be questionable due to the limitation of the sources. Nevertheless, for simplify the evaluation of the effectiveness of the dispute resolutions is quantifying the time cost and feedback from the disputants, further measure the applicable frequency of this resolution. Research Programme Please refer to Appendix A Ethics and Safety Approval Please refer to Appendix B REFERENCES: Fisher, T. (1994) Construction Mediation. Dispute Resolution Journa, March 1994, pp.8-16. Harmon, K. (2003) Resolution of Construction Disputes:A Review of Current methodologies. Leadership and management in Engineering, October 2003, pp.187-197. Flake, R. and Perin, S. (2003) Mediating Construction Disputes:What Works and What Doesnt. Construction, May/July 2003, pp.24-34 Hassanein, A. and Nemr, W. (2007) Construction Claims in Egypt:Contrasts and Similarities With Published Literature. AACE International Transactions, INT.04, pp.1-5 Mcdonald, P. (1984) Construction claims costing for owners and contractors. Construction management and Economics, 2, pp.1-12. Baki, M. (1999) Delay Claims management in Construction A Step-by-Step Approach. Cost Engineering, 41(10), pp.36-48. Chester, M. and Hendrickson, C. (2005) Cost Impacts, Scheduling Impacts, and the Claims Process during Construction. Journal of construction engineering and management, January 2005, pp.102-107. McDuff, C. And Ray, M. (2002) Total Cost Construction Claims Tactics. AACE International Transactions, CDR 11, pp.1-3. Goyal, B. (1996) Consturciton Claims and Disputes:Causes and Cost/Time overruns. Journal of construction engineering and management, June 1996, pp.197-198. Brooker, P. And Lavers, A. (1997) Perceptions of alternative dispute resolution as constraints upon its use in the UK construction industry. Construction management and Economics,15, pp.519-526. Thompson, M. and Vorster, m. and Groton, J. (2000) Innovations to Mange Disputes:DRB and NEC. Journal of construction engineering and management, October 2000, pp.51-59. Cheung, SO. and Yiu, TW. and Yeung, SF. (2006) A study of Styles and outcomes in Construction dispute Negotiation. Journal of construction engineering and management, August 2006, pp.805-813. Treacy, T. (1995) Use of alternative dispute resolution in the construction industry. Journal of construction engineering and management, January 1995, pp.58-63. Mcgreevy, S. (2005) Arbitration, mediation, ligtigation:Whats best?. Mcgreevy on Law. Joyce, W. (2008) Returning Arbitration to an effective process in construction contracts. Dispute resolution journal, July 2008, pp.15-18. Shapiro, J. (2002) using Mediation and Arbitration to Resolve Construction Disputes. Business Credit, November 2002, pp.59-61. Kuzma, S. and Hoffman, D. and Bradley, L. (2002) The Impact of Daubert on Expert Testimony in Construction Disputes. Construction Law and Business, 3(1), pp.19-23. Gransberg, D. and Joplin, A. (2000) Developing Construction Claims for Arbitration:Two Arbitrators Viewpoint. Cost Engineering, 42(7), pp.29-31. Yiu, TW. and Cheung, SO. and Mok, FM. (2006) Logistic Likelihood analysis of mediation outcomes. Journal of construction engineering and management, October 2006, pp.1026-1036. Spalj, G. (2005) Construction Disputes. Construction Bulletin, 14 October 2005, pp.3-6. Hills, M. (1995) Building Contract procedures in Hong Kong. 3rd ed., Hong Kong:Longman.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Modern Tragic Hero Of Gatsby English Literature Essay In the novel The Great Gatsby, Gatsby is a tragic hero because he displays the fundamental characteristics of modern tragic hero. He is a common man, he contains the characteristics of a tragic flaw, and he eventually has a tragic fall. Although at first glance Gatsby might not seem to be the everyday man, in reality he actually is. At one point Gatsbys past is being examined and his parents are described as shiftless and unsuccessful farm people which shows the readers that he came from humble roots and was just like everyone else (Fitzgerald 95). He was not born into wealth and privilege and did not have any special background that gave him an advantage over others. Another instance in which Gatsby is portrayed as the average man is when Nick is discussing Gatsbys past and he says, So he invented just the sort of Jay Gatsby that a seventeen-year-old boy would be likely to invent(Fitzgerald 95). This shows that the persona that Gatsby has created for himself is that of any average, immature boy. As the novel progresses further you find Nick recounting Gatsbys past and describing him as being a penniless young man which again shows the reader that Gatsby is really just the common man with a big dream (Fitzgerald 141 ). This statement helps take away some of the disguise of wealth and overwhelming power, and brings him into a more human perspective. Gatsbys tragic flaw is that his view of the world is obstructed by his own naive idealism. It is very clear to the reader that Gatsby is idealistic when, while Nick is over at Gatsbys house, he reflects on Daisys and Gatsbys relationship and he notes, There must have been momentsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ when Daisy tumbled short of his dreamsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ because of the colossal vitality of his illusion(Fitzgerald 92). This shows that even Nick, his best friend and the one that sticks up for Gatsby the most, sees that Gatsby perceives Daisy to be ideal and perfect. Gatsby does not see things as they really are and expects them to play out exactly as he thinks they will. An example of this is when Nick is talking to Gatsby after a party and he tells Gatsby that he cant repeat the past, and Gatsby responds, Cant repeat the past?Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦. Why of course you can!' (Fitzgerald 106). This delusion, that he can repeat the past and redo everything, blinds Gatsby to what is going on right in fr ont of him. It seems as though he does not realize how absurd the idea of obtaining Daisy love is. Gatsbys idealism also blinds him to how Daisy really acts and what her personality is like. An example of this can be seen in the imagery of the novel. Throughout the novel white is used as imagery for pure and innocent, while yellow represents corruption. A daisy has white petals and a yellow center. This imagery relates because it shows how Gatsby perceives Daisy. All he sees is a beautiful, loving woman who loves him back and he cannot see past his own idealistic view of the perfect Daisy to the corrupt, shallow, money-loving Daisy. Another example of Gatsbys overwhelming idealism is his own self perception. Gatsby thinks as long as he surrounds himself with riches and the wealthy, that people will accept him and he can erase his former self; Gatsby the poor farm boy. This shows how he is idealistic because no matter what a person does, the former self will always be there. Later in the novel when Nick is reflecting on Gatsbys idea of Daisy he notes, He wanted nothing less of Daisy than that she should go to Tom and say: I never loved you.' (Fitzgerald 105). This idea is not a realistic expectation because Daisy is already married and has a family to take care of; also her religion prevents her from getting a divorce and marrying him. All these are factors block Gatsby from obtaining his ideal dream, but he seems to be blind to them. Although Gatsbys physical fall starts near the end of novel, his spiritual fall arguably begins before you even meet him. In the middle of the novel you hear about Gatsbys past and how he was a poor average man, but he was honest and worked hard. As the novel progresses you hear about his relationship with Daisy and how it ended because he was not wealthy enough. He needed to become wealthy so that Daisy would marry him. To obtain this wealth Gatsby started to participate in dishonest and illegal deeds such as bootlegging. This shows a fall spiritually because he goes against his morals and values. Closer to the end of the novel, after Daisy kills Myrtle in car accident, you learn that Gatsby will take the blame for Myrtles death. Although this is a show of love for Daisy, it is eventually what leads him to his physical downfall. Throughout the novel you are shown images of Gatsby surrounded by all kinds of wealthy and high class people, and it seems as though he has many friends. Ho wever, at Gatsbys funeral at the very end of the novel when Gatsby is shot and killed, there is no one there except for a select few. This image is used very well because it shows how the mighty have fallen. The one person everyone thought had it all, in reality has nothing; no money, no love and no friends. Gatsby is a perfect example of a modern tragic hero because he has an eventual tragic fall, he displays certain characteristic that shows that he has tragic flaw and if you look beyond his wealth, you will see that he was just common man with a big dream.