Thursday, February 28, 2019

Byzantine Thessaloniki

Cassander, the son of General Antipater, ruled Macedonia from 316 to 297 B. C. He founded the third capital of the Macedonian kingdom in the year 315 BC and named it Thessaloniki, after his wife. Thessaloniki was alike Alexander IIIs half-sister. Formed at the crucial region in the road network, Thessaloniki became the seat of Macedonias monetary and administrative control. Thessaloniki played a historically important role during the knotty completion (Ekdotike Athenon). It had had such fortified walls that it resisted several invasion attempts, although it had fell slightly four times in over thousand years.Thessaloniki was also the indue where the Pythian Games were held once in e actually four years. An artificial harbor was also formed under Constantine the great. There is evidence that the region was inhabited compensate during the Neolithic period. There are several archeological sites and monuments at Thessaloniki which straight off highlight its glorious past. The arc heological sites include the Palace of Galerius built in 300 A. D, the roman type Baths and the Roman market and theater, while the monuments include the Galerian wind built before 305 A. D, and the Church of Ossios David constructed during the late 5th century (Barrett M).Christianity was introduced by Apostle Paul in 50 A. D. Jews are presumed to have first colonised in Thessaloniki around 140 B. C, from Alexandria, Egypt. The Jews were given considerable autonomy during the Roman period, which were later curtailed under Byzantium, with Christianity becoming the responsibility religion. Although successive problematical emperors introduced restrictions on Jews, they were allowed to live by the traditions and dictates of their religion, thus developing and contributing to their heritage. When poof Turks conquered baffling Thessalonki, the Muslims grew in prominence (Hagouel).One of the most notable features of Thessaloniki is its religious harmony with Christians, Jews and Mu slims life-time together under Ottomans. When Sultan Murat II brought in administrative reforms for the metropolis, he offered tax exemptions and religious autonomy to both the Christians and the Muslims. There are very few cities in the world which can claim to have been a continued metropolitan existence for such a lengthy period as the Thessaloniki. Thessaloniki was the second most important city of the involved and the Ottoman empire, after Constatinople.It should be noted here that each era witnessed by Thessaloniki is today represented today by its monuments (Brown). The city remained the center of political, frugal and artistic activity, retaining its urban characteristics. By the early Middle Byzantine era, the city already had a thousand year history. In the Middle Byzantine period, trade improved as demand for products from Thessaloniki increased. The traditionally exported items were wool, silk and linen. Other exported items from Thessaloniki include luxury goods beari ng metal and glass work, wine, fish and fruits.The sophistication of the Byzantine Thessaloniki architecture is evident from the subjective ignitor planed at Rotunda at Thessaloniki. The geometrical patterns associated with the monument are replicated on the mosaics. The sills of the large windows and the gold tesserae also consecrate to the illumination of the mosaics. The mosaic move up is aptly inclined to correspond to the tip off of light entering through the large arch shaped windows (Iliadis). The surface inclination of the mosaic also suits the light penetrating through the lunettes, ordered at dome base. Annotated bibliographyThe article by Ekdotike Athenon throws light on the insertion of Thessaloniki by Cassander who named it after his wife. During the Byzantine, it was almost an invincible place. The article by Barrett idiom its glorious past in the field of architecture. It also gives an idea of the entranceway of Christianity. The article by Hagouel shows the a ttitude of Byzantine emperors towards Jews. While making Christianity the state religion, they set restrictions on the Jews. Brown mentions Thessaloniki as one of the few cities in the world with a history of a successful trade.Iliadis looks into the sophistication of lighting at Rotunda at Thessaloniki, where the mosaic is illuminated by natural building. REFERENCES Hagouel P. I. , story of the Jews Thessaloniki and the holocaust. West Chester University of Pennsylvania (2006) Electronic Version Downloaded on tertiary July, 2008 from http//www. wcupa. edu/_academics/holocaust/Salonika. pdf Ekdotike Athenon S. A. , Byzantine Thessalonike Electronic Version Downloaded on 3rd July, 2008 from http//www. macedonian-heritage. gr/HellenicMacedonia/en/C2. 3. html Barrett M., What to see in Thessaloniki Electronic Version Downloaded on 3rd July, 2008 from http//www. greecetravel. com/thessaloniki/museums. html Brown. A. R. , Middle Byzantine Thessaloniki (1999) Electronic Version Download ed on 3rd July, 2008 from http//socs. berkeley. edu/arbrown/text. html Iliadis I. G. , The natural lighting of the mosaics in the Rotunda at Thessaloniki (2001) Lighting Research and Technology, Vol. 33, No. 1 Electronic Version Downloaded on 3rd July, 2008 from http//lrt. sagepub. com/cgi/content/abstract/33/1/13

Air Pollution Essay

Air contamination is another major problem that is yet to be solved. The activate is 99.9% nitrogen, oxygen, urine vapor, and inert gases. We as humans depend on the occupation almost us to live, without it we would die. Although we rely on this as an essential source for living, it is stillness littered and polluted with chemicals. Pollution of the atmosphere and the communication channel around us is institutionalise pollution, and this is becoming more popular e reallyday. There atomic number 18 several(prenominal) main types of ship pollution that include smog, acid rain, the greenho routine effect, and holes in the ozone layer. The types be extremely harmful to the environment and could result in beneficial damage.There are many shells of air pollution and in that respect are many to agitate. The first type of air pollution is smog. The name smog came from a newspaper article almost 50 years ago. The word is slang for smoke and fog, and that is indeed what smog is. Smog is a compliance of air pollution created by the photochemical reaction with sunlight and the chemicals in the air, and than this death wish well mixture is released into the atmosphere. An example of how fatal smog was in 1952 with the incident, capital of the United Kingdoms killer smog. This incident happened in declination of 1952, when a deadly wave of smog hit London killing over 10,000 people. Citizens walked with the streets with surgical masks on, waiting for a wind to raise and blow this serious wave of pollution outdoor(a). There wish came true on December 10, after almost a week of terror and many wound and dead people. Smog alone is just as fatal and perilous as the other mental strains of air pollution.The other major types of pollution are acid rain, greenhouse effect, and holes in the ozone layer. Acid Rain is any ruin that has an abnormal acidic amount. Acid rain is salmagundied when chemicals are released from places like cars and factories, the se chemicals rise and mingle in the clouds, and than return to earth in the form of precipitation. The Greenhouse effect is another import issue in air pollution. The Greenhouse effect is the trapping of heat and energy imputable to the gases that form a barrier in the atmosphere. The gases will let heat in moreover will not let all heat out. This is equivalent to what happens in a greenhouse. The ozone layeris withal at majuscule risk. In places like Antarctica the ozone layer is disappearing rapidly. Scientists have dissimilar theories about that, adage that it is due to chemicals make on earth, the extreme temperature in Antarctica, and some deliberate it is a solar activity to blame. In any case it is open to see that the ozone layer is in danger.CAUSES AND SOLUTIONSThere are numerous causes to air pollution. There are two main causes of air pollution can burning in residential, commercial, and industrial places is one cause. The other cause is automobiles creating vast amounts of carbon monoxide and other virulent fuels.The burning of chemicals releases fumes in the air polluting the atmosphere. Large factories are at blame in this case due to their large amounts of chemicals burned and of their large smoke stack which pumps these fumes into the air. at heart many factories they burn fossil fuels, these fumes than are sent into the atmosphere, encourage contributing to the air pollution problemAnother major cause of air pollution is car fumes. Inside the engines of cars, fossil fuels are populace burned, and than these vapors are omitted out through pipes in the car. The major chemical being pumped out of the car is carbon monoxide this is a very toxic material and can be fatal if enough is in interpreted. Diesel engines are also very toxic. These engines contain over 450 different chemicals and about 40 of the chemicals exhaust are considered toxic air contaminants by the State of California.Air Pollution also imposes the biggest scourge o f all our health. Our health is the most precious thing to us and air pollution endangers this greatly. The people that are most vulnerable to the air pollution risk are young children, people with breathing problems, and elderly people. short effects to air pollution include irritated eyes, nose, throat and focal ratio respiratory system and other symptoms include headaches and nausea. Some long terminus effects of air pollution exposure are chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart diseases and damage to important organs such as the brain.Although there are many problems there is also a number of solutions.By completely eliminating the pollution would solve all these problems, so by doing small-minded things we all can make a big difference. Since cars contribute a great deal to the air pollution problem, by using them slight would lessen the problem. By not using things like Styrofoam, which are made in a mill that had to burn fossil fuels, you are also helping your co mmunity. To eliminate pollution indoors always use change and clear ventilation machines and filters. Lawmakers should also make more laws on air pollution and pass more bills pertaining to this subject.CONCLUSIONThere is many to blame when it comes to air pollution. There is the citizens who use cars (that give out carbon monoxide) and use material made in a factory. There are the factory owners, who let their factories run, although they know theyre polluting the air everyday. Than there is the government. Although the government is essay to stop it, they also contribute to the problem by not whirl more laws about this situation. Everyone is at blame for the air pollution problem, but if we all work together we can fix our mistake and excuse the atmosphere.Air Pollution is an extremely serious matter that is not taken seriously. The future of the earth is in our hands and we should treat this with respect. We have the chance to change our future, the opportunity to alter the way generations live, we should treat this opportunity with guard and kindness. We should be more aware of the things that are happening in the world and what we are doing when the car revs up and puff the smoke. As we endeavor away in our cars, we are driving our future generations into a tangle of trouble. shortly people will have to wear surgical masks when walking subdue the street. We cannot let this happen to our society We must(prenominal) be aware, prevent, and do it. We must be in action at all times seek to save the ozone layer and trying to stop smog from occurring in great masses. Lets drive away from air pollution and drive into a smog-free life

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Literary Analysis Essay

Painting the Pages with Abstract Words Creative compose is a apparatus that can effectively evoke connections with a reader and a effectuate of writing. Whether these connections are personal, or simply thought provoking, I believe it wagerer helps us become immersed in such writings as Tabula Asiae, by Michael Ondaatje. The use of a sense of place forces one to picture themselves in the story being told.Tabula Asiae uses metaphoric phrases that makes the essay much more interest to read. the wife of many marriages, courted by invaders who stepped ashore and claimed everything with power of their sword or bible or language (Ondaatje 99). The sentence apply here by Ondaatje creatively elaborates on the historic tale of Ceylon, which describes that The island seduced all of Europe (99). This is where I believe a slice of history makes an appearance in the essay. Although Ondaatjes essay seems a bit imaginary and dreamy, it definitely does have historical references and occurrences mentioned within its body.When one compares an essay alike(p) Tabula Asiae with other nonfiction essays like How I Learned to Read and Write by Frederick Douglass, it becomes abundantly realise that Douglass essay is a nonfiction piece focused more on personal experiences as the primary nonfiction form of writing. Once you let down reading Douglass essay, you instantly become impressed with his cleverness, heart, and strives to become a fluent reader and writer.An example of the personal experience form is used in most of the body of Douglass essay, especially this sentence- I was now about twelve years old, and the thought of being a slave for life began to jut heavily upon my heart. Just about this time, I got hold of a hold back entitled The Columbian Orator. Every opportunity I got, I used to read this book. (Douglass 89. ) For me, Douglass immediately establishes a link, which gives me an astonishing need to cheer him on to become the man he wants to become. The two ess ays mentioned above, proves that different styles of nonfiction writing creates a much different experience for the reader.

Outline and assess Essay

The view that heathen in sufficientities in cultureal execution be caused by instructors and swear outes inwardly school is a complex argument. at bottom school at that place is a clear pattern which demonstrates that the white state perform over much better than the social minorities which be doing worse, on that point are clear and concise figures from the Office for National Statistics, 47% of White British Males achieve 5 or more(prenominal)(prenominal) A- C at GCSE in comparison to 39% of Pakistani Male.There are studies which show that heathenish inequalities at school fix educational effect, for instance sociologist Wright (1992) say shows that instructor racism is still existent in schools. On the other hand, if this was the guinea pig that pagan inequalities produced in schools, cause a failure in educational achievement then why is it that Chinese (69% of boys) and Indian (61% of boys) are importantly knocked out(p)performing the white population (47% of boys).See more essay apa formatTherefore, this does non mean that ethnical inequalities are caused at school and that at that place could be cultural explanations at home which influence the failure of educational achievement, e. g. in Afro-Caribbean culture there is a high rate of male apostasy which creates a barrier for education. In this essay I will muster in whether processes within school i. e. ethnic inequalities influence the failure of educational achievement or would be the factors at home which influence this. There is much evidence which supports the view that ethnic inequalities in educational achievement are caused by instructors, as mentioned the study by Wright (1992).He had acknowledged that instructors had held racialist labels for students of an Asian background, as they believed that Asian students had a poor knowledge of the English dustup which had meant that when during classroom discussions they would be left out due to this wrong or whilst discussion are taking place they would be intercommunicate to in more simpler terms for them to understand. This shows how they havent been given an equal opportunity to join in rather they were just left out because of their disadvantage, this process makes them feel not part of the classroom therefore could alike produce sub-cultures which is the intimately likely outcome.Interactionists study how teachers labelling has an influence on pupils educational achievement and how the label from different ethnic groups causes ethnic inequalities amongst the pupils. The main ethnicities which were affected by racial labelling were the disconsolate and Asian pupils. Wrights study also showed that Asian girls were seen as discreet and submissive this uninventive them into being invisible in class. Afro-Caribbeans were seen as both with behavioural problems and of downhearted academic potential, resulting into conflicts with teachers.To contradict the view that Asians are predominan tly raci eithery abused, sociologist sperm-filleds studies (1984) found that the teachers labels were a way of motive for them. The labels which were given already by teachers as to becoming failures, made students more and more determined to achieve success and especially to screen the teacher wrong that they can be successful. This would be the case for students of a Chinese and Indian heritage 70% of Chinese boys were achieving 5 or more A* C grades at GCSE and 61% of Indian boys were to, in business line to just 47% of White British Boys (Office for National Statistics).This shows that even ethnic minorities were achieving substantially higher than students of a British background, this challenges the Interactionists perspective as it shows that ethnic inequalities can be a good source of competitiveness and that it does not have to cause a failure in regards to educational achievement. However, there are further suggestions from sociologist Mirzas study (1992)which support s the view that ethnic inequalities within educational achievement are caused by teachers and the processes within school themselves.Her study Failed Strategies for Avoiding Racism outlines how some students are not able to develop strategies which swear out to coping with ethnic inequalities such as when they are faced with teacher racism and teacher labelling. Her study found that when grisly pupils were discussing careers and plans for further education they had cooled down this shows how sub-standard they are viewed as they didnt help them by providing direction instead they casually just listened.She identified that there were three types of teacher racism the first one being that they were colour blind this meant that teachers views of all the pupils were equal however during practise they allowed racism to go unchallenged, this was passive racism. The insurgent type was the liberal chauvinists they had views of sear pupils being less privileged in terms of culture, which had led them to have low-expectations of their academic ability. Lastly, the overt racists teachers would classify black pupils as second class they were less superior and were discriminated actively.Also in 2007 a published account argumentation by Channel 4, they had uncovered the take aim of degree of racist attacks at schools, they had access to these rights via the Freedom of Information Act. The report had showed that over the past years there had been a substantial summon in the number of racial attacks a staggering 100,000 occurrences had been documented, this shows how racial attacks are still in Contemporary Britain and that they are still rising in todays world.Nothing has been done to stop these incidents from happening and they are still going unnoticed. This view is also argued by Mirza, she believes that this is still a significant problem and that these figures are an underestimation of the problem itself. If this problem is not stopped this could further lead t o a barrage of bullying as well as they are likely to underperform in their education. As well as this, the influence which teacher labelling has on pupils when they try to cope with teacher racism reinforces subcultures within the school.This is the case especially for Afro-Caribbean students as there are numerous studies which emphasise this point, one of the most significant studies from Gillbourn and Youdells (2000) study Rationing Education, the study showed that teachers were quick and hasty when it came to disciplining mordant pupils which had shown bad behaviour and when it came to the other ethnicities whom had a similar behaviour were more lenient.This would be because teachers had held racialised expectations, as such teachers misinterpret behaviour and see Black pupils as anti-authority. This inturn creates conflict between teachers and pupils which reinforce stereotypes and leads to further problems. On the other hand, there are several, external reasons for why there are ethnic inequalities in education. One of the main ones would be nomenclature foreign students would hear obvious difficulties when learning because English is not their first language.They would have obstacle interacting with other students as well as the teacher having the English language not their usual language this would be the case for black British students as they are perceived as having non-standard English. Sociologist Mac an Gail (1988) supports this view, as he states that speakers of black British English may be labelled as less intelligent because of the form of language they use. As a exit of this students may feel prejudiced against and actually use their language to impel schooling.Lastly, in support of the parameter there is further evidence from Sociologist Tony Sewell he had conducted an observation at a boys secondary school. Sewell (1998) observed the different approaches Black boys use when they cope with racism. He outlined that there were four mai n responses to teacher racism the first response was the conforming type, this was suggested as there was clear evidence which had shown that majority of black pupils genuine the values of the school and they were keen to be successful.Next was the rebellious type, this was the most influential group but was still a minority this subculture spurned the values of the school and opposed the school by joining a peer group. These reinforced the negative stereotypes of Black Machismo. Thereafter, the retreatists who were a small minority which were secluded and disengaged from peer group subcultures and the school. Lastly the innovators, they were the second largest subculture who was both pro-education as well as anti-school. They distanced themselves from Conformists enough to keep credibility with the Rebels whilst valuing education success.From Sewells conclusion it was clear that teachers had held a stereotype of Black Machismo seeing Black pupils as rebellious and anti-authori ty. To conclude from this, I do agree with the statement that ethnic inequalities in educational achievement are caused by teachers and the process within school however to some level degree. There is much evidence which supports this view as sociologist Mirza and Sewell have similar arguments which support the statement as teacher racism and labelling is very influential in terms of educational achievement.If students feel undermined by education because of labelling they would conform to being a failure as because of their teachers expectations. However, it is fair to say that it could also work the other way and motivate students to become better and prove their teacher that they have the capability for success (being the case for Chinese and Indian students). There are also factors such as culture and language which have an influence and also can reproduce ethnic inequalities in educational achievement.

Generic devolopment proces

The action undertaken so far has proven that the breeding of a sue map is gaining momentum at heart the manifestation industry as a whole. The deadly inspired CRISP ( crook Research and Innovation dodge Panel) community has in principle adopted the offshoot confabulations protocol as a basis for its activities in terms of promoting transit thinking in the twist industry. 2. Introduction The fatality for emolument to the conventional traffic pattern and look mathematical operation in the turn industry is well reported. Emerson (1962), Bankable (1964), and Lethal (1994) energise every commented upon the compulsion for change, and separately highlight similar paradox beas.Fundamentally, the demand for value is related to the silly emergence common landly associated with building cyphers. Typically, this performance is measured in terms of cost, cartridge clip and/or quality. Unfortunately, it is the UK manifestation Industry response to the carry for chang e that has perpetuated and even perhaps fostered this problem. For practice session, Franks (1990) and surmount (1992) presented the evolution of the range of procurance systems catamenialy on offer to dominance aspect project clients as driven ultimately by the mathematical product view, and the need to optimism cost, time and quality. Yet, whilst many of the more recent improvementes to reflexion procurement (I. E.Design and Build, gimmick wariness) app atomic number 18ntly attempt to sh ar answer issues, much(prenominal)(prenominal) as conversation, in reality they essentially fail. In a survey conducted by Hubbard & Disbarred (1996), a sample of 64 respondents (representing some(prenominal) clients and consultants) evinced that contract time performance was a factor considered to be relatively insignificant, when compargond to t present problems commonly associated with verbal expression projects as shown in table 2. 1. Furthermore, Mortgaged & Shari (1996) re ported that from a measure of 21 5 projects surveyed, 136 (63%) were delivered afterward than expected In terms of the dates stock-still by the contract or the dates given to the client for completion. No. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Variables Changing requirements Design group Communication Cost control acknowledgment of responsibility Supply of knowledge Quality Design faults Contract time performance Other factors Type of contract Percentage 25 18 6. 3 4. 7 3. 1 1. 6 Table 2. Ranking of problems with current procurement rules (Hubbard & Disbarred, 1996) Mortgaged & Shari (1996) go on to suggest that it is the expectation quite a than the livery which is at fault. The conventional impact of generating an expected delivery date is considered the reason for this In some cases commercial, economic or political considerations can be a driver towards setting these unrealistic goals which become expectations and contract dates for drop of inform and unbiased advice.Consequently, s ocial organization performance falls short of expectations which were largely unattainable when they ere established. A number of lessons can be occupyed from the manufacturing sector with regards to the implementation and practical implement of a sour view within the construction industry. The ara within the manufacturing sector that relates closely to construction and building kit and boodle is called naked product break downing (NYPD). It concentrates in the study of an idea, need or client requirement to the final commercialisms of the product e. G. A building or a car. A number of similarities can be put amidst the two industries with regards to the activities used for developing new products.For example they include The incision of a project can be initiated internally or by direct and/or indirect contact with the customers The development of the product requires the fight of a number of specialists and functions much(prenominal) as casters, surveyors, mark eting, stress analysts etc. The happy construction or manufacture of a building or product can only be achieved if all external (suppliers and consultants) and internal resources are utilizes and co- ordinate feelingively The building or product is handed everywhere to the customer/client and provisions are made for future fight back. only there are a number of distinct differences, the most chief(prenominal) of which is that in the manufacturing industry all NYPD activities are co-ordinate, managed and controlled victimization a common framework which is the NYPD work out.The construction industry mainly, uses ad-hoc methods for achieving the latter and therefore reducing repeatability of process execution, resulting in the same mistakes occurring time after time. This shift into the establishment of a consistent process for the construction industry requires a new dash of thinking entailing a change of culture and working(a) institutionalises. Furthermore, it requires a vertical understanding of current practices and future tr poles effective communication mechanisms of such(prenominal)(prenominal) processes, such as seating agreement of participating parties Technology can past be used to enhance integration and sharing of breeding. In concomitant with a process map, an IT map should enable the effective use and co- ordering of technology found on a predetermined process framework.This news report proposes a process map which consists of a high level process and sub-processes ( action mechanism Zones), which support the various phases of a construction project and the appropriate information technologies. 3. Methodology During the development of the Protocol a number of research methods choose been used 1. 4. 5. Retrospective and prospective case arena analysis refreshen and analysis of contemporary construction processes and practices Review and analysis of concepts and practices applied within the manufacturing industries perform ance mannikin including various nonplusing tools and techniques Iterative development using feedback from several industrial partners via interviews and workshop sessions and scenario building The results to date of some of this work will be draw in subsequent portionsPrinciples As a result of the initial analyze of the literature, and the identification of the industry requirements through additional interviews with practitioners, six key principles are considered to provide the basis for an improved process. They are drawn heavily from the manufacturing sector where process thinking and continuous improvement has been focused upon for some 30 years. In addition, many of the principles relate to acknowledge problem areas in construction, where significant improvements redeem been called for (interracial Bankable, 1964 Lethal, 1994). The six principles are as follows Whole Project View In the construction industry the comment of a project has traditionally being synonymo us to actual construction works.As such the pre-construction and post- construction activities have been sidelined and a good deal accelerated to reach the construction distributor point or to move on to the new Job. This has resulted in poor client requirements identification and delayed the exposure of any capableness solutions to the need to any internal and external specialists. Any contemporary attempt to correct or create a frame and construction process will have to cover the whole life of a project from recognition of a need to the operation f the finished facility. This rise ensures that all issues are considered from twain a bank line and a technical point of view. Furthermore this come out recognizes and emphasizes the inter-dependency of activities passim the duration of a project.It also focuses at the front-end activities whereby attention is stipendiary to the identification, definition and evaluation of client requirements in order to identify fit soluti ons. A Consistent operate During the review of existing models and descriptions of the design and construction process, it was quickly established that little consistency existed. In such an environment, the problems encountered by temporary multi-organizations (TOM) working can be compounded. Luck & Newcomer (1996) support this view, describing the role ambiguity commonly associated with construction projects. ontogeny of this generic Process Protocol provides the effectiveness to establish its consistent application. Through consistency of use the scope for ambiguity should reduce.This, together with the adoption of a standard approach to performance measurement, evaluation and control, should facilitate a process of continual improvement in design and construction. Progressive Design Fixity The layer-gate approach found in manufacturing processes (Cooper, 1994 ref. Fig. L) applies a consistent think and review procedure throughout the Process. Phase Reviews are conducted at the end of each Phase with the deal of reviewing the work executed in the Phase, approving progress to the next Phase, and planning the ring and execution of the next Phase. Cooper, in his third generation process, sawing machine the need for conditional-go decisions at phase gate, to accommodate aspects of concurrency. This philosophy is translated in the development of the Protocols phase gates.Phase gates are secernateed as either soft or hard, with the soft gates allowing the potential for concurrency in the process, whilst ensuring that the key decision points in the process are respected. Fig. 4. 1 Coopers comparison of stage-gate processes (Cooper, 1994) The potential benefit of this approach is fundamentally the progressive muddle and/or approval of information throughout the Process. As Cooper(1994) states, the discipline of the Phase Review action mechanism improved the conventional chaotic, ad-hoc approach of manufacturing to which the Construction Industry of today could be compared. Co-ordination Co-ordination is one area in which construction traditionally is perceived to perform poorly.This perception is back up by Bankable (1964) and Lethal (1994), in addition to many otherwise reviews of the Industry. The need for improved co-ordination was also highlighted by the interviews with senior managers undertaken during the research project. It is therefore proposed that co-ordination of the Process Protocol is undertaken, principally, by the Process and Change counselling military action Zones. (see section 7) Appointed by the Client, the Process Manager will be delegated re demonstration to plan and o-ordinate the participants and activities of each Phase, throughout the Process. The actions of the Process Manager are supported by the Change Manager, through which all information related to the project is passed.In this role, the Change Manager acts as the official interface in the midst of both the Activity Zones in the Process, and ul timately the Legacy Archive. Stakeholder Involvement & Teamwork It has been recognized in the manufacturing industries that multi-function groups, established in a development process, reduces the likelihood of costly changes and exertion difficulties later on in the process by enabling design and manufacturing sections earlier in the process. Conventionally, many building projects comprise a team of participants assembled specialisedally to facilitate the development of that single. Consequently, a complete project team rarely works together on more than one project, and, as Somerville & Stocks (1996) argue, this can negatively affect the assembled teams performance.In addition, many key contributors are identify and included too late in the process. Project success relies upon the ripe(p) people having the right information at the right time. Proactive resounding of Phases through the adoption of a stakeholder view would ensure that appropriate participants (from each of the k ey functions) are consulted earlier in the Process than is traditionally the case. This, in itself, will not eliminate the problems associated with TOM working. However, the active fight of all participants, especially in the earliest phases of a project, whitethorn later on cooperate foster a team environment and encourage appropriate and by the way communication and decision making.Feedback In addition to the direct teamwork problems associated with Toms, the ability to learn from experience is also hampered by the continual formation and break-up of project teams. two success and disappointment can offer important lessons for the future, yet the separate and competitive nature of the Construction industry prevents the benefits of shared best practice being utilizes. The Phase Review Process facilitates a means by which project experiences can be recorded, throughout the Process, thereby informing later Phases and future projects. Competitive advantage will come from how s uch experiences are acted upon. (shared knowledge may not automatically reduce the competitiveness of companies working in construction.This Process Protocol therefore proposes the creation, maintenance and use of a Legacy Archive acts as a central repository, or information-spine (Sheath et. Al. , 1996), for the information generated through each of the phases of the process. The subsequent increase in awareness, project to project, has the potential for reducing risk and improving performance which over time may ultimately meet Lathes expectations. Process learning Given the apparent lack of commonality in the contemporary understanding of the design and construction process, an attempt was made to produce a model of the process which could be debated and subsequently refined towards a generic representation.The initial model was developed based upon existing descriptions of the design and construction process (inter alai Walker, 1989 Hughes, 1991), some case study data, and revi ews of other published models (inter alai RIBS, 1980 Assassin, 1994 BAA, 1995) The DEFIED-O (Integration Definition language O for Function Modeling) process modeling technique was adopted, initially, as the most appropriate means of representing this process. The DEFIED-O technique essentially represents a process as a sequence of activities, described by a verb followed by a noun. Each natural process has associated inputs, outputs, controls and mechanisms. It is this technique that has been used successfully to represent processes such as Assassins (1995) Integrated create Process Model In developing a process model using the DEFIED-O technique, an initial step is the establishment of the activities that will comprise the model. In preliminary interviews and workshop sessions with the projects industrial partners these activities were presented for discussion in the form of an Activity Hierarchy.However, initial reactions to this were poor, principally because such an approach d id not facilitate communication of the process, either quickly or clearly. Moreover, it was found that the industrial partners to the project, at this stage, also preferred to concentrate on the general principles of the process, in preference to the enlarge of the activities involved. This preference for principles was found to have a certain congruence with other models of manufacturing processes. Coopers discussion of the evolution of the stage-gate models in manufacturing (Cooper, 1994), and other (inter alai GAP (1990), Fissions) industrial models, demonstrate this. In such models the graphical representation of the process conveys its inherent reminisces.As Rousseau (1996) notes, such process models are an effective way to show how a process works. In their definition A process map consists of an X and a Y axis, which show process sequence (or time) and process participants, respectively. The flat X axis illustrates time in process and the individual process activities or ga tes. The Y axis shows the departments or functions participating in the process (p. 444) Beyond this convention, there appears to be little formality in the method used to represent a process. Furthermore, it could be argued that the elated informality of the modeling process enhanced the contributions of the projects partner representatives.Through several workshop sessions, the model was revise and deliberated by the partner representatives. As Rousseau (1996) argues, this participative approach to design makes any new process easier to accept and use. In an industry with a need for change such an approach must be considered appropriate. Thus, through a process of in small stages refinement, progress was made towards an agreed version, the Process Protocol, which this paper presents. 6. The Process Protocol The draft Process Protocol Model is presented in Fig. . 1 . Essentially, the model breaks down the design and construction process into 10 distinct phases. These 10 phases ar e grouped into 4 broad stages, namely Pre-proetc, Pre-Construction, Construction and Post-construction.Pre-project grade The Pre-project Phases relate to the strategic business considerations of any potential project which begins to address a clients need. Throughout the Pre-project Phases the clients need is progressively delineate and assessed with the declare oneself of 1. ascertain the need for a construction project solution, and 2. Securing outline financial business office to proceed to the Pre-Construction Phases. In currently acknowledged models of the design and construction process (inter alai RIBS, 1980 British Property Federation, 1983 Hughes, 1991 provides a comprehensive review), and recently published client-focused guides (CIRRI, 1995), this stage of a project is given scant consideration, when compared to the latter stages.However, the models assume that when plan of attack the Construction Industry, clients have already established the need. Whilst there i s little proof to suggest this is not the case, it would seem reasonable to assume that the knowledge feature by speculative alluding developers and consultants could assist any client in these early stages of a project. The problems associated with the translation of this need through the conventional briefing stage of design (Reilly, 1987) have the potential for substantial elimination via such an approach. Pre-Construction stage With outline financial approval obtained, the Process progresses through to the Pre- Construction Phases where the defined clients need is developed into an appropriate design solution.Like many conventional models of the design process, the Pre- Construction Phases develop the design through a logical sequence, with the aim of levering approved deed information. The Phase Review Process, however, adds the potential for the progressive fixing of the design, together with its concurrent development, within a formal, co-ordinate framework. Progressive f astness should not be confused with design freeze, although to some this may be a desired aspect of the process. The major benefit of the fixity of design is the potential for improved communication and co-ordination between the projects participants as they pass through each Phase. Given the dynamic market conditions which influence any construction clients decisions, the need for flexibility must be addressed by the industry.At the end of the Pre-Construction Phases, the aim is to secure full financial authority to proceed. Only upon such authority will the Construction Phase commence, and this decision will be easier to make where the extent of the works, and its associated risks can be readily still. Construction acquaint The Construction Phase is solely concerned with the production of the project solution. It is here that the full benefits of the co-ordination and communication earlier in the Process may be fully realized. Potentially, any changes in the clients requirements will be minimal, as the change magnitude cost of change as the design progresses should be fully understood by the time on-site construction work begins.The hard gate that divides the Pre-Construction and Construction Phases should not prevent a Workplace approach to construction, and the associated delivery time benefits this brings. As with all activities in the process, where concurrency is possible, it can be accommodated. The hard and soft gates that signify Phase Reviews merely require that before such an activity is carried out, approval is ranted. Post-construction Stage Upon completion of the Construction Phase, the Process Protocol continues into the Post-construction Phases which aim to continually monitor and manage the maintenance needs of the constructed facility. Again, the full involvement of facilities management specialists at the earlier stages of the process should make the enactment of such activities less problematic.The need for surveys of the completed pro perty, for example, should be avoided as all records of the development of the facility should have been recorded by the projects Legacy Archive. Figure 6. 1 . The Generic Design and Construction Process Protocol Model 7. The Sub-processes Activity Zones The earlier involvement of the projects participants, throughout the process is a significant development of the conventional approach to building. Traditionally, a construction projects participants are referred to by their passe-partout or expert status. Ball (1988) demonstrates how this may be attributed to the inherent class relations associated with each of the professions and expert groups. As with all class distinctions, the effect that this basis for organisational structure in design and instruction has is division.A case of this traditional approach, by which even the more recent forms of contract procurement (design and build, management contracting, etc. ) are included, is the poor communication and coordination common ly associated with construction projects. The participants in the Process Protocol are referred to in terms of their essential responsibilities, and are represented on the Y-axis of the Process Model. It is recognized that traditionally, project to project, organizational roles and responsibilities change, resulting in ambiguity and confusion (Luck & Newcomer, 1996). By basing the enactment of the process upon the firsthand responsibility required, the scope for confusion is potentially reduced, and the potential for effective communication and co-ordination increased.The Process Protocol groups the participants in any project into Activity Zones. These regulates are not functional but rather they are multi-functional and they represent incorporated sets of tasks and processes which guide and support work towards a common objective (for example to create an appropriate design solution). A single person or firm can carry out an activity zone in small-projects but in large ND comp lex projects, an activity zone may consist of a complex network of people and between relevant functions and/or organizations. Since they are multi-functional, membership of the zones is determined by the specific project task and/or process.For example Design wariness often has important input in the Production counselling and Facilities Management activity zones, amongst others and vice- versa. Of the activity zones associated with the model, not all will be discussed here. Most of the zones are self-explanatory. However, the role of the Process/Change Management and tuition Management activity zones will be described, as they present a significant spill from the conventional view of the design and construction process. Development Management The Development Management activity zone is fundamentally the client/customer for the potential project. In the Protocol scenario, it is ultimately responsible for the success or failure of the project.Representing the major stakeholder i n the process, it has an important role. It is via the brief prepared by the Development Management that the client/customers needs are presented and ultimately interpreted. The Development Management is the only constant player in the process. All other activity zones potentially consist of a dynamic membership, as the needs of the project develop throughout the process. The extent to which the other participants in the process, particularly the Process Management, have authority to proceed is delegated by the Development Management. It is they who will ultimately review the work of the projects participants and sanction progress or cessation.Development Management is responsible for creating and maintaining business focus throughout he project, which satisfies both relevant organizational and stakeholder objectives and constraints. For example, a proposed speculative office development needs to satisfy the developers objectives (say, return on capital) and constraints (say, availa ble finance), as well as fulfilling other stakeholder considerations (say, compliance with dominant planning concerns). Process / Change Management The Process and Change Management activity zones are essentially the interface between the Development Management and the other project participants. Process Management has a role case-by-case of all other activity zones.A distinction must be dadaism between this conventional view of a project manager and the Process Management role. Process Management, as the title suggests, is concerned with the enactment of the process, rather than the project. Key to the success of each Phase in the process is the production of project deliverables (reports and documentation associated with each Phase). In this respect the Process Management is responsible for facilitating and co-ordination the participants required to produce the necessary deliverables. Acting as the Development Managements agent, it will ensure the enactment of each Phase as pla nned, culminating with the presentation of the

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

National Curriculum Subject Of Science

In this assignment I impart be behavioring at the National Curriculum topic of Science. I sh solely be expression at be aftering a scientific compete atomic number 18a lesson and educational action at law to a complete family line. I will confront critically at facets of the scientific chasten socio-economic class of study, including the Early Years Foundation stage ( EYFS ) .Once the scientific subject lesson has been taught, I will measure how vertical the lesson went, if at that place was whatever line of credits and if there was, how they were over stick to. When be aftering the lesson I will pick up at the misconceptions in scientific ascertown(prenominal) and how resources/strategies military service to put these misconceptions straight.I will anyway look at ICT in the scientific theatre shape of study and how ICT was hold in the planned and taught scientific gibe lesson. The manner scientific even out is taught has been good discussed with those w ho say that kids should be taught scientific field of study and those who say kids should be taught to retard an reason of scientific discipline.Cockburn ( 2001 ) provinces, Others establish a well- established position that a chief purpose of educate scientific discipline is to advance rapture for the topic and to heighten students apprehension of, and, involvement in, scientific issues in big life. ( Cockburn, 2001, pg 183 )So Cockburn moots that instructors should teach kids in a manner that excites them, and wants them to be influenced in their adult/ calling life. further in the Independent reappraisal of the Primary Curriculum Concluding study, it looks at the culture of Science as, Scientific and technological apprehension. ( Rose, 2009, pg 47 )Rose relys that kids should be taught to h h whizzst-to-goodness anyhow an apprehension of scientific discipline instead than hope learning that leads them to desire a calling in scientific discipline.As a practicia n I believe that the topic of scientific discipline should be taught to hold an apprehension of scientific discipline. This apprehension should be taught with such(prenominal) creativeness and enthusiasm that the kids will desire to detect and research on their ain. later looking at the National Curriculum for Science, and talking with the syndicate instructor, it was distinct that the branch on indubit able radiation and ignominious was to be taught following. The kids had a basic apprehension on motiveless and ignominious, due to them dimension a brief de just now to the topic in a old hebdomad.As the kids be in refer Stage One, in consonance with The National Curriculum for Science ( 1999 ) kids argon to be taught, To place contrasting megascopic radiation set- gumptions, including the Sun. and that darkness in the absence of visible radiation. ( QCA, 1999, pg19 ) The centering of prosperous and dark at this phase servicings to construct up a implantation f or afterward larning cerebrate to light and sound.An sooner foundation is reinforced in the EYFS, for a attainment of Science. Such ends atomic number 18, Find out to the highest degree their environment, and speak slightlywhatwhat those characteristics they like and dislike. ( DCSF, 2008, pg 15 )This builds a foundation for visible radiation and dark this is because light/dark is portion of their environment. This end anyway allows for teachroom treatment which is cardinal for their societal edifice accomplishments at this phase. other foundation gal that is linked to the visible radiation and dark sleeve is, Observe, authorise out astir(predicate) and place characteristics in the topographic express they love and the natural introduction. ( DCSF, 2008, pg 15 ) This helps to construct a foundation, as the kids be taught about things that occur in the natural universe, i.e. visible radiation and darkness.After light and dark has been taught at keystone Stage One, the acquisition continues into Key Stage Two. The first gear thing that kids atomic number 18 taught is, That light travels from a beginning. ( QCA, 1999, pg 26 )Others accept, that when visible radiation is blocked it forms shadows, that on brooding surfaces the light reverberates and ultimately that the visible radiation has to mother in our eyes to enable us to follow up. ( QCA, 1999, pg 26 )The foundations atomic number 18 built in the EYFS with the kids being taught to detect the universe around them this creates a basic cognition needed to reassign to Key Stage one and two.I shall now critically reflect on the scientific discipline course of study, looking at the scientific discipline on a intact. nitrogen, 2000, pg 232 describes how the scientific discipline course of study faces issues on a whole, Here we will look at the demand for you to see certain operational affairs in the primary scientific discipline schoolroom such as jobs of schoolroom administrati on and direction and the slipway in which you and the kids move during lessons. So before contemplation on the course of study its ego, the agreement and way of the schoolroom has come chthonic examination. Newton believes that administration affects the instruction of scientific discipline nevertheless Garson looks at how the resources atomic number 18 the precedence. A utile manner of guaranting that the schoolroom a instructor instal in is contributing to making scientific discipline activities is to name the demands created by such activities and so batten that it is realizable, within the anomalous restraints imposed by the school, to fit those demands every bit about as possible. ( Garson, 2007, pg 78 ) some other issue has been brought up by the Houses of Parliament, Factors within primary schools that may intrusion students involvement in scientific discipline, include whether scientific discipline instruction is adapted by single schools to reflect the invo lvement of their students the focal betoken on readying for SAT s trials in the last year of primary school primary instructors degree of scientific cognition and authorization in learning scientific discipline. ( Houses of Parliament, 2003, pg 2 )They believe that there ar issues in the primary course of study that discourage the acquisition and enthusiasm of the kids in the schoolroom. heretofore Mertler, 2005, pg 217, writes about a survey conducted with pargonnts and kids. He summarises the last of the survey, 60 % of the parents considered their kids enthusiastic or really enthusiastic about larning scientific discipline both before and after the survey. The survey was conducted one year after the radicals from the Houses of Parliament was published. It could be looked upon the papers assisting the instruction of scientific discipline by instructor improving and accommodating their instruction methods. Although it is possible that no alterations were devoured and the position of instructors, parents and kids changed for no ground.Another issue in scientific discipline is the job of misconceptions. As described by Tweed, The phrase misconception denotes an mistake in believe about the scientific discipline construct, enchantment prepossession is a great deal more blameless, since the thoughts arose from their ain loves and without formal scientific discipline direction. ( Tweed, 2009, pg 104 )Tweed believes that there are lone prepossessions instead than misconceptions. This is because kids perceive scientific discipline from their take in instead than holding a misconception due to subscript instruction.Dean discusses why there could be possible misconceptions in the scientific discipline course of study, Children attack scientific discipline with thoughts of their ain about why things are they manner they are and these theories are frequently mutually exclusive with the thoughts instructors want them to larn. ( Dean, 2005, pg 8 0 )The citizens committee on Undergraduate scientific discipline instruction, 1997, pg 27 looks further into the quandary of misconceptions in scientific discipline. They province, Students are frequently able to hold algorithms to perish out numerical jobs without wholly thought the implicit in scientific discipline construct. They speculate that kids provide drag it on replies to inquiries, frequently through rote, but non hold any apprehension of the scientifical background. If kids give rise no apprehension of the scientifical background of things so how chiffonier this aid with their job work outing accomplishments?Looking more closely at misconceptions in scientific discipline, I will now concentrate on light and dark. Looking at the misconceptions in the visible radiation and dark subdivision will assist me be after my lesson subsequently.The first misconception that I come across was that some kids believe, The oculus is the lone organ for sight the genius is the merely for thought. ( Weiler, 2009 )Although this is non straight elated to light and dark on the whole it is linked. This is because kids need to larn that the visible radiation helps us to see, but we can utilize our other senses to happen things.A survey conducted by Pine, Messer and St.John, 2001, pg 11, besides noted some misconceptions of kids, some of these include, One kid thought you light a lightbulb by seting it in the Sun, another believed that visible radiations are the chief beginning of visible radiation. Four instructors highlighted the misconception that the Moon is a beginning of visible radiation. St John, Pine and Messer, 2001 conducted a he-man with instructors on the misconceptions in scientific discipline. There were umpteen misconceptions within the scientific discipline course of study. It is problematical to understand how kids project these misconceptions/ prepossessions. Where the kid thought that a light bulb demands to be put in the Sun to vis ible radiation, it is possible that this is a prepossession instead than a misconception. The kids might hold experience with solar energy, but non hold the scientifical apprehension that the bulb could be powered in an alternate manner.However, if there are possible misconceptions for the visible radiation and dark subdivision, it is accomplishable and crucial to seduce rid of them. There are many ways to subvert misconceptions the most good is published by the Committee on Undergraduate scientific discipline instruction, 1997, pg 30, Carefully selected presentations are one manner of assisting pupils kill misconceptions. This peculiar system of get the better ofing misconceptions helps kids who are kinesthetic scholars, as kids learn crush by making. If the instructor was to utilize shows with the kids, the hands on larning attack will assist to overcome the misconceptions.Bing able to place possible misconceptions and how to get the better of them is acute to assist when b e aftering lessons. Planing lessons is important to assist raise the accomplishment of the kids and to run into the standards set by the National Curriculum, There are four chief schemes for raising accomplishment. They are a planned course of study that has both comprehensiveness and perspicaciousness strategies of work that break down the course of study into manageable balls strong lesson programs specialisation, so that each kid is able to work to his or her ain potency and non execute undertakings that are either bareively voiced or surplusively hard. ( Smith, 2002, pg 96 )If instructors are to learn to the right criterion and beyond so they should be after their lessons with links to the National Curriculum. exploitation the QCA strategies of work will assist every bit will the use of distinction.As cited earlier the kids will be looking at the visible radiation and dark subdivision of the scientific discipline course of study. The misconceptions faced earlier are assistive towards the mean of the lesson. This is because presentations will be projected to help kids repress their misconceptions.Teachers besides need to be after for distinction during any topic, nevertheless from experience it can assist to hold assorted baron groups that will back up each other.Newton, 2000, pg 216 describes how instructor should travel about planning for scientific discipline, When planning for scientific discipline there are four peculiar standards you need to thing about comprehensivenesss, balance, continuity and imitate advance. Newton conceives that to be after a scientific discipline lesson, instructors should believe about breadth . The breadth agencies to cover a broad mountain chain of each subdivision non merely concentrating on each sub-section separately. The balance of the planning is the balance of learning for an apprehension and consecutive frontward learning. Continuity is linked with the appraisal, guaranting that the kids to the full understand before traveling on to the following subject. in the end progression can besides be associated to continuity. It focuses more on guaranting the kids put on a full apprehension and any misconceptions have been overcome.When be aftering the lesson I felt it was needed and good to re-cover any anterior cognition they may hold. Walker, 2008, pg 9 besides suggests utilizing this crop to recap old lessons/ cognition, In a representative hr lesson this will take 5-10 proceedingss. Its intent is to give pupils a spirit of the lesson and to acquire them believing. Alternatively it could be an natural process to arouse what they toy with from a old lesson. The starting motor of the lesson will be a PowerPoint that will be interactive and able to be apply on the SMART Board. I decided to utilize PowerPoint as it is package that can be projected onto the SMART Board which will enable the kids to interact with the PowerPoint. Likewise PowerPoint is package that I have a bunch of experience with, so I am able to determine that it is an exciting stimulant drug for the kids.Miller, Averis and Sherran, 2004, pg 7 describe in item how good utilizing PowerPoint/ synergistic whiteboard in the schoolroom can be. They suggest that it can motivate both the kids and the instructor in many instances it can help concentration. It is besides non clock time consuming, leting distantther rationalize for freelancer work. Potter and Roberts, 2002, besides study on the benefits of utilizing PowerPoint, Using a computing machine helps pupils to widen their concentration and doggedness since they are extremely motivated to win in their undertaking, students will persist for far longer that they would with a undertaking on paper. PowerPoint helps all kids with their concentration non merely those who are ocular and kinesthetic scholars. Looking at my ain experience in the schoolroom, when other instructors have utilize PowerPoint I have spy kids, who neer ty pically answer, seting their baseball glove up and holding a attempt.I chose to utilize PowerPoint over any other package because of the broad scene of interaction and media available when utilizing it. Besides it is compatible with about all laptops and scope computing machines, so there would be no issues, during the lesson, with compatibility.However some believe that there are issues when utilizing PowerPoint in the schoolroom, Brown, 2007, pg 1 notes that in some instances people/children can go un-affected by PowerPoint s if they are used excessively much and in emanation.However it could be argued that if the presentations were synergistic and prosecuting so neither the kids nor the instructor would go tired of them. Chin, 2004, pg 29 besides notes a frequent issue when utilizing PowerPoint in the schoolroom. He believes that some instructors can be allured by the broad scope of media available and over usage it, then doing it endearing but besides deflecting for some kid s.On the other manus the scope of media used, could, show a benefit to those in the schoolroom. This is because each example of media ( exposures, sketchs, picture, sound or graphs ) is suited to cover all of the different acquisition manners that the kids have.ICT should be used in the schoolroom at a assortment of times whether it is to present a subject, re-cap old lessons work, to informally measure out kids or as an educational activity for those kids who have finished their work early. However there are besides times when ICT should non be used, the chief(prenominal) clip is when a kid is fighting with their work this clip should be a one to one instructor focal point clip.The PowerPoint I used in my lesson links to the larning nonsubjective, That there are many beginnings of visible radiation. ( QCA, 1998, pg 2 ) This is taken from the QCA Schemes of work for Science. The PowerPoint ( appurtenance A ) links to this peculiar acquisition aim. This is because it asks kid s what kind of beginnings of visible radiation they can believe of. and then to widen their cognition the kids are so able to play a game placing the light beginnings.As I used PowerPoint during my lesson instead than any other ICT, I feel that the lesson flowed more easy. Besides as I used ICT at the beginning of the lesson I sense the kids were focused. By utilizing an synergistic piece of package I was able to detect the kids and research them, whilst they were playing the game.Sing the PowerPoint and the kids in footings of accomplishment I feel as though it did assist the kids to carry through. The PowerPoint helped the kids meet the required acquisition aim, it besides help the kids to derive an apprehension of the many available light beginnings.When be aftering the independent portion of the lesson, I felt that this was the best country to assist get the better of the kids s misconceptions. As radius about earlier the best manner to get the better of the misconceptions is through presentation. Wragg and Brown, 2001, pg 15 besides back up the theory of how , Wrapped inside a why? inquiry is frequently a how? inquiry. The best manner to reply how? is to actively include the inquirer in a presentation, this is frequently more helpful as the kids learn best by making, which Wragg and Brown ( 2 ) , 2001, pg 56 besides back up, Most kids ( and grownups ) learn best when actively involved. I decided to cover the learning aims, That visible radiation is indispensable for seeing things and That when it is dark other senses can be used to assist us happen things and place things. ( QCA, 1999, pg 2 )To make this I covered three of the school desks with blinds, towels, covers and other stuff, I so ensured that under the tabular array was in darkness. I so laid out a assortment of objects under the tabular array and on the roof of the tabular array for the kids to happen. ( Appendix B )I chose a a couple of(prenominal) kids at a clip out of the categ ory, before they went under the tabular array I questioned them as to how they were be aftering to happen the objects as it was traveling to be dark, this was to re implement the different senses portion of the acquisition aim.Once the kids had found two or three objects, they were so asked to come out and place the object and bow the others what they thought it was.For the comprehensive of the lesson I decided to garner all the kids on the rug to discourse they activity that they had merely done. I asked the kids about what they had used to happen the objects e.g. their custodies. I besides asked them about how they knew what each point was, this was to promise that they had achieved the lessons larning aim.The appraisal of the kids was done throughout the lesson this was done by observation of the kids s apprehension during the lesson debut. This was besides done through oppugning the kids during the chief portion of the lesson on what senses they will utilize to happen the o bjects. The usage of oppugning during the lesson is as fast and easy attack of appraisal, Questioning is one of the most utile methods of distinguishing appraisal. Oral and write responses to varied degrees and founts of inquiries help the instructors officially and informally acquire an thought of how the category and single pupils are understanding the constructs of the unit of survey. ( Northey, 2004, pg 146 )As there was no written work, observation and oppugning were the most expert methods of appraisal during this lesson, it besides helped as I could en-visage if any of the kids were fighting during the starting motor and give them excess support.As this was a scientific discipline lesson none of the kids were split into tycoon groups. This was besides because for most of the lesson the kids were on the rug, those who were of disappoint efficacy were given excess support from the Particular Support Assistants, Farrell affirms this belief, However, the chief ways of dif ferentiating can be brought together in six attacks. These are distinction by result, undertaking, support, schoolroom administration, resources and extension. ( Farrell, 1999, pg 50 )After learning the lesson, I experience that the lesson had really few major jobs. It is evident that the usage of play/demonstration helped the kids to larn, this is supported by many theoreticians. An old Chinese adage says, I hear I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand. ( Conficius, 551BC- 479BC ) If kids are to hear they bury, if they see something they will remember it, nevertheless if they do it they will grok the construct behind it.One job during the chief instruction activity was that under the tabular array, it was non dark plenty, which would consequence the result of placing the object. This was easy overcome by adding more stuff to do it darker.The kids were engaged while the PowerPoint was on during the lesson, although the game did over run into the chief instruction of the lesson, with respects to clip as a effect there was small clip for me to make inquiries with the kids. This nevertheless was overcome by oppugning them, whilst they were waiting to make the undertaking. The inquiring was an indispensable portion of the lesson, as mentioned before it was portion of the appraisal of the kids. In time to come when composing lesson programs, I shall compose approximative timings in each box, to stop up that there is clip for oppugning.As I had planned portion of the lesson to get the better of any possible misconceptions or prepossessions I can be certain that the kids did non complete the lesson with any of them this is critical to the scientific discipline lessons subsequently in each cardinal phases.I feel as though the usage of ICT did better the instruction and acquisition of the lesson, I felt as though it helped to better and keep their concentration and apprehension. Williams, 2003, pg 8 besides agrees, If the surprise and exhilaration of scientific discipline is non to be lost, so it is imperative that ICT should be included, non merely to streamline to treat, but to actuate the kids and heighten the quality of their acquisition. However Farmey, 2002, page 131, notes a logical point that many instructors should inquire themselves, the followers, when believing about utilizing ICT, Is the usage of ICT a better method than pencil and paper? The method hence being considered must offer advantages over the other attacks if it does non so the usage of ICT should be questioned. In response to Farmey s thought, looking at my usage of ICT in the lesson, I do non believe that the kids would hold benefited every bit much as they did if I was to hold used another method of learning. The acquisition was synergistic, and all the kids desired to hold a attempt at replying. Although another job faced was some of the kids gave unhoped replies in order to seek and utilize the synergistic whiteboard.If I were to utilize this ty pe of presentation once more I would turn it into a merriment game where if they were to give a cockamamie reply I would be able to steal one of their points.On farther outline of my lesson I do experience as though farther distinction was needed. Upon reiterating a similar lesson I would guarantee that those of lower ability were discover and assessed ( informally ) to guarantee that they had a clear apprehension.Upon looking back at the lesson program and the lesson itself, I have found three cardinal countries to look upon in the hereafter. These are the timing of the lesson, guaranting full distinction of the kids and besides guaranting the resources/ activity are equal.The first affair that asks for attending is the timing of the lesson this is indispensable to guarantee that the kids are covering all that is planned, Regularly running out of clip alters the balance of the lesson and means the decision is neglected. ( Overall & A Sangster, 2003, pg 181 )Clocking demands to be kept in order for a full and proper plenary to take topographic point. The plenary of the lesson is where the chief portion of appraisal is done, if there is limited clip to make the appraisal so this does non organize an accurate history.Differentiation is another thing that needs attending in the hereafter. Although there was distinction, with the particular support helpers assisting the lower ability kids I feel as though there could hold been more accent on it. Hayes, 2006, pg 63 expressions at distinction being in two classs, There are two chief types of distinction used by primary instructors. The first type is where all students are given similar undertakings to make but the outlook differs consequently to the student s academic competency. The 2nd type of distinction is where students of different academic proficiency are given typical undertakings and activities on the same topic but with differing degrees of challenge. Looking at Hayes, 2006, pg 63 If I was to make the lesson once more I would guarantee that the lower ability had more focussed help/encouragement, besides that the higher ability was given more ambitious objects to place. Finally it is besides indispensable that all resources/ activities are checked and ascertain that they will enable to better the kids s acquisition.At the beginning of this assignment I discussed how I was traveling to look at be aftering a lesson in the scientific discipline course of study. I planned a lesson and utilizing the Hagiographas of assorted theoreticians the lesson was planned with cardinal characteristics remembered. I besides looked at how there are differing positions on the scientific discipline course of study subdivisions and besides the usage of PowerPoint/ ICT in the schoolroom. I besides evaluated the lesson I taught and looked at the jobs that I faced and so how they were overcome. From this I found three cardinal facets that I need to retrieve when be aftering next lessons.When be afte ring to utilize ICT in the lesson I did happen it difficult to believe of an ICT constituent to utilize, so I decided to research some. Upon researching I did come across many theoreticians who did non favor utilizing ICT in scientific discipline, which did alarm me as to if there was traveling to be any benefits in utilizing ICT. However this support me to make farther research and I did happen a batch of theoreticians who supported the usage of ICT.Upon composing and researching this assignment I feel as if I have gained more understanding of composing lesson programs. I have gained cognition of theoreticians contrasting positions and I have besides gained more whole category learning experience.

Efas and Ifas for Starbucks in India Essay

Population I think the prodigiousger commonwealth is, the bigger merchandise will be. As the second largest population country, India was one of the biggest grocerys in the world, so I angle it as 0.2. monetary value of chore From exhibit 3, I found that Indias cost of labor was very favorable. As a company, we ordure not only guidance on how much we earn. We also need to know how much we spent, because the to a greater extent(prenominal) we save, the more we earn. In conclusion, I cant over it as 0.15. Availability of hands quantity From exhibit 6, I found that over 55% populations argon 15-59 yrs in India in 2001, and this number will rise high and higher in next 15 years. Therefore, there are some(prenominal) workforces in India. When Starbucks guild enters India, it will offer many work opportunities for Indians. It can make India government giving more support for company, so I weight it as 0.1. Less coffee retail Less coffee retail will make Starbucks Company ea sy to enter the market, further not easy to get market share, so I weight it as 0.05. Global Retail Development Index (GRDI) From exhibit 9, I found that India was NO.1 GRDI in the world, and the most important part in GRDI is market saturation. India market saturation was 89/100. It means there is a big piece of cake in India, but not only Starbucks Company can get it, so I weight it as 0.1. ThreatsThe nourishment habits differed across diverse religions and regions In India the food habits differed across diverse religions and regions, so it is difficult for Starbucks Company to produce products. In food market, the company which catches customers put up will win the market share. Luckily, Starbucks was focus on coffee the unalike food habits will not influence too much, so I weight it as 0.05. Beverage market of coffee From exhibit 12A, I found that in Indian beverage market, coffee only had 6.7% in 2001, and reduce year by year. In 2005, coffee only had 2% market. As a coffe e company, if India didnt have big market share for coffee, it is terrible for Starbucks, so I weight it as 0.15. Caf coffee Day (CCD), Qwikys and Barista tilt These are three biggest competition companies for Starbucks in India. As a fresh man in India, Starbucks need do more and better than others, or people will not miscellany their habit to go to a new coffee shop, but competition also promote improve, so I weight it as 0.05. Liters Per someone (coffee) From exhibit 12B, I found that as a Indian, they drunk more than 20 times tea than coffee. Starbucks need make people crapulence more coffee. I weight it as 0.05. Per Capita Consumption of Coffee in India State-wise From exhibit 13, Per Capita Consumption of Coffee in India was not big, and it reduced year by year form 1981-2001. As a company, the first quarry is earning currency, so if people dont want to spend money on your company, company will not run well. I weight it as 0.1.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Information Technology Management Essay

data and communication technologies play critical roles in sustaining an transcriptions growth and profitability (G solelyiers & Leidner, 2003). If managed properly, investments in teaching and communication technologies can improve efficiency and effectiveness of trade processes and an cheeks competitive posture in the market. Proper concern of cultivation and communication technologies investments can also enrich lots lives in the organization change job satisfaction and productivity. Galliers & Leidner, 2003).Success in managing selective knowledge and communication investments depend largely on exercising in effect(p) management practices like human capital management, staff training management, information engineering architecture management and softwargon management (Galliers & Leidner, 2003). However, with all the potentiality benefits of investments in information and communication projects, they can be risky, costly and sleeveless if not managed properly (Galli ers & Leidner, 2003).Organizations should therefore strive to attract and retain information engineering science personnel that argon qualified and talented to ensure the achiever of information and applied science investments. This is further complicated by a buckram information and technology pains market where qualified information and technology personnel enjoy high mobility. Discussion The position I am required to design is a leadership position intended to picture technical direction and guide an organization in implementing strategic information and communication projects (Food and horticulture organization of the United Nations, 2010).The occupant of this position is judge to be adapted to handle a wide range of duties and responsibilities. He or she should be able to use his/ her exposure, technical experience and business enterprise knowledge in developing an organizations technical plans and to advise elder management on information technology strategies, stan dards and governance (Galliers & Leidner, 2003). In addition he or she bequeath be expected to supervise the industrys trends in information technology and respond appropriately by formulating long term information technology strategies capable of improving an organizations competitiveness.The senior information technology double-decker will work under the general inspection of the chief decision maker officer. In line with work plans and resource allocation coordination provided by the chief executive officer, he or she will be creditworthy for effective planning, supervision and delivery of charge functions that mint inside an information and communication part (Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations, 2010) so as to ensure that an organizations requirements for information systems and information technology are effectively and efficiently met.He will also be responsibility for ensuring that an organizations computer systems leave the capacity to meet th e business needs of an organization by either upgrading existing systems or developing new systems (Info tech Employment, 2008).Additional functions will include participation in planning, coordinating and reach policies for the development and implementation of an organizations information technology strategies, funding standards, procedures and practices, supervising and coordinating works of external firms in special projects or functions to ensure quality and timely delivery, providing consultant services in regards to procurement of new information technology equipments and computer systems, supervising members of staff assigned to special projects or functions and coordinating their training and development to ensure that they are up to the tasks and finally, developing and monitoring key performance indicators of assigned functions within an information technology department (Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations, 2010). The senior information technology manager is expected to have an excellent operative knowledge in information technology and a commitment to moderate up to date with the latest development (Galliers & Leidner, 2003).He should argue peoples management skills with an ability to motivate staff members, provide a cooperative and productive work environment, manage resources effectively to achieve objectives, create and coordinate work in the department and explain technical issues intelligibly (Info Tech Employment, 2008). He or she will be tasked with leading changes that fall within the information technology department, hence must be able to integrate organizational and departmental goals, priorities and values. In addition, he or she should have experience in managing large scale projects in information systems and technology (Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations, 2010).To fulfill these expectations, a university degree in computer science or related fields and appropriate passkey certifica tions are mandatory. Moreover, the candidate of choice should have at least atomic number 23 years management experience in information technology. He should demonstrate experience with standard software applications and data manipulation, analysis and interpretation tools (Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations, 2010). Conclusion Information technology investments can be very beneficial to an organization as a whole if they are managed properly. Organizations should therefore strive to rent and retain qualified, experienced and talented information technology managers.This is not easy given the current information technology labor market. The labor market is characterized by high mobility of qualified labor and organizations must put in place effective measures to ensure they hire the right people. One of the measures an organization should take is defining clear structures and responsibilities of all employees in the information technology department. The senior information technology manager will provide technical direction and guidance to the organization in implementing strategic information technology projects. He will be responsible for ensuring effective and efficient management of resources within the information technology department.

Shouldice Hospital Limited. Case Study Analysis

register 1 Acceltion,s run Guarantee Quaury oF Srnvlcn GueneNTEE TheAccelIionQualitvofServiceGuaranteedefines,AcceI1ion,sassurance*, Ifjrfl. ,f,iljtm3rumlFj *-Hiri, dilaffi,. irn 1. Perfonnance Guarantee ari,,iuo. , orte-. *r,sea ne. i,, is the same as Accellion guarantees that the death penalty of the. Net- fit uproading and downloading content, Accellion value will be no t*t p. *t of that w1n hich. hr*d by a benchmik origin as a resurt of usine the site being accessejfrom r. ribii , ffi,ltjifi ,TiTt u pfilffi, p,ro. *u, *iTly*il? T? Jril,xHi. ililabilitv, 3.Customer Service -,****,L,tr o,%li o, o. r,o. ,. excludingForce Maieureand schedured Maintenance for customers Guarantee should Accellion burst to pick up on the service trains set come forward in sections 1 and 2 with virtuoso (L) months service fee ror Accenion will credit ttre monttirirtua-*nr,,n r,iGl3bove account .diili,it*. mer the customer,s ritten nonice to Accellion of such(prenominal)(prenominal) failure gi ves w withiii6) aays rrom ttre J* ,r1 rrrrre occurred. with this requirement,wil rrrit. rttil/r The Customers rrii* t. *fry right to receive such credit. Accellion will notify the cttom. ,o LIfrffixirabre or anv different iI* iri1 s r,or. , liauyrfy*. J of schedule Maintenance. I reasniii pfi, ffirtn c,,i. -,. 1Jiii,,saryf the service acrion to *fffflflffirffilJ,Ji*,. il$Jt3iJfl*fil*il* 4. Security and privacy policy ,o each(prenominal) interrogative sentence in re,a,ion,o Accellion has comolete respect for the Customers privacy and that of any custome,r data stored in Accellion service does not require Acce,ion servers. The Customers i prtJa iyalrrite servers solely information provided details for the data being stored on the to a. uioiy tLr c. r. i,rrii, he Customer,, ililT Iv r,u,, ut,, ,or br,rit. A,ccerion w,I not hat the revelation of Customers itrttti. 5. iuii. A. ions til,,, &iT,tffi1nir. r,1liffidHi ilJAff1X1T. ,HfiHdr1oaut, to possession shalr i-tut * . ifntI . ,*p . ffity onlybe made where such disclosure is *a to the terms or example or ,,o, Accellion will ensure-that th ctstoms informatiorr and data atomic cast 18J ke1cur9 or imProPer mapping which includes ttrqgii*ruur rtp, io rr. ri,fil,tr1r,. mer,s adenrity d protected from unauthorized access i before granring access. EXHllBlr Dear Team, 2 orAcclrionEmail to solely Accellion cater Announcing the Launch of the oos Guarantee T Xijiffi11JT? ,i? tYl1*8 vua,ry ot ervlce guarantee read it over very cargonfully. vo iulLriJi1/*u16 Quarirvof service suarantee (Qos). prease Please ancr ascribes t ownership o in this company to deliver. Cr,o. . , ompanf c ustomers aon,r wen+ . J9,flT? Ll31d irt nuts *he -o*r,rrnipin ever d o,. ,tt-1q6btcDDrve ,h theirnetworkrip*irrrilrhcfi,*. . ,f1. -t-,LevelAgreement(sLA)ttruyrt**i *ilfflr. H,ffi Slfl a*Xi AJffi ,,*mf ***$ii+,r,fry,j,nTffi 18,. ,l*iFiqd-. iffi H? 1HJHT1f 3tr As a member of the Accellion Lt, vl_. 1. team, you ar key to our client,s s atisfaction. Thanks in maintain for your suPport in making our clients and ourselves successful. .. 4? jir. -. . ii. ,l*-i1il.. 1,ji. iijlj. L. what is the marketing impact of a well-designed guarantee? 2. Eaaluate uncover the_ seraice design of Acceilion,s guarantee shown in r-. How ffictiae wilr it ui rn communicating seraice exceuence to potentiar and current customers? would you suggest any motleys to its design or imple_ mentation? 3 will he guarantee be successfut in creating a curture for seraice exceilence inwardly Aiceilion? whit erse may be needed for achieoing such a glossiness? . Do you 4 think customers mEht take adaantage of this guarantee and stage seraice filures to inaokeTlrrgrorantee? If yes, how could Acceuion minify potentiar iheating on its guarantee? The Accellion Service Guarantee Sg1r Case 16 Shouldic e Ho spit al Limite d (Abri dge d) JeuEs Hpsrprr AND Rocnn HellowELL A Canadian infirmary specializing in herniation trading ope proportionalityns is considering whether and how to turn out the reach of its seraices, including expansion into sepa grade specialty aras.Various proposals haae been adaanced to increase the capacity of the hospital without demotiaating the staff or losing tone down oaer seraice quality, which, in addition to achieoing excellent medical outcomes, has created a aery deaoted launch of long-suffering alumni. Options include adding Satur solar day surgical operations, building an extension, and constructing a neTD hospital in anformer(a) location, perhaps in the United States. TWo shadowy figures, enrobed and in slippers, offered slowly down the semi-darkened hall of the Shouldice infirmary. They didnt notice Alan ODell, the hospitals managing director, and his guest.Once they were out of earshot, ODell remarked good genius dLy, By the way they act, youd think our endurings own this dwelling. And while theyre here, in a way they do. Following a project to the five operating modes, ODell and his visitant once again encountered the same pair of perseverings still engrossed in discussi. g their hernia operations, which had been performed the previous good morning. HrsroRY An attractive brochure that was freshly printed, although in recognise dated nor distri exactlyed to prospective long-sufferings, described Dr. Earle Shouldice, the founder of the hospital Dr. Shouldices inte counterweight in primaeval ambulation stemmed, ffi.? T,15,T? jTJH-,H,,T the girls subsequent refusal to stay quietly in bed. In spite of her activity, no harm was done, and the experience recalled to the rectify the surgical actions of animals upon which he had performed sur gery. They had all moved clearly freely with no ill effects. By 1,940, Shouldice had disposed extensive thought to approximately(prenominal) factors that contributed to early ambulation following surgery. Among them were the intent of a local anesthetic anesthetic, the nature of the surgical surgical process itsel f, the design of a facility to encourage movement without unnecessarily causing discomfort, and the postoperative egimen. With these things in mind, he began to develop a surgical proficiency for repairing herniasl that was superior to other(a)s word of his early success generated demand. Dr. Shouldices medical license permitted him to scat anywhere, heretofore on a kitchen delay. However, as more(prenominal) and more patients bespeak operations, Dr. Shouldice created new facilities by buying a rambling 130acre estate with a 17,0-squ be foot main house in the Toronto suburb of Thornhill. aft(prenominal)ward whatsoever years of planning, a large wing was added to provide a summate capacity of 89 beds. Dr. Shouldice died in 1965. At that time, Shouldice hospital Limited was formed to hold in both the hospital and clinical facilities under the surgical direction of Dr. Nicholas Obney. In 1999, Dr. Casim Degani, an inter areaally-rec o g nrzed authority, b ecame surge on-inch ief. By 2004,7,600 operations were performed per year. THr SHouLDtcE system Only external (vs. internal) ab hernias were repaired at Shouldice infirmary. Thus close to proto natural-time repairs, primaries, were sincere operations requiring approximately(predicate) 45 minutes. The remaini. g procedures involved patients suffering getting evens of hernias antecedently repaired elsewhere. Many of the return keys and very difficult hernia repairs required 90 minutes or more. In the Shouldice method, the muscles of the abdominal wall were affanged in trinity clear layers, and the opening was repaired-each layer in turn-by overlapping its margins as the edges of a come out might be overlapped when buttoned. The end result reinforced the muscular wall of the abdomen with six rows of sutures (stitches) under the skin cover, which was then crockedd with clamps that were posterior removed. (Other methods might not separate muscle layers, practically involved feH,er ilil,13i* ffiT,nvorvedtheinsertionotCoPyright O 2004 President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request consent to disgorge materials, call 1-800515-7685, write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA021,63, or go to http//www. hbsp. harvard. edu. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a recuperation system, used in a spreadshee or transmitted in any form or by any meanselectronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise-without the permission of Harvard Business School. Professor crowd together Heskett prepared the original version of this case, Shouldice infirmary Limited, HBS No. 583-068.This version was prepared jointly by Professor James Heskett and Roger Hallowell (MBA 1989, DBAI997). HBS cases are developed solely as the basis for class discussion. Cases are not intended to serve as endorsements, sources of primary data, or illusfrations of useful or ineffective management. 592 A typical first-time repair could be consummate(a ) with the use of preoperative sedation (sleeping pill) and analgesic (pain killer) plus a local anesthetic, an injection of Novocain in the region of the incision. This allowed immediate post-operative patient ambulation and facilitated fast recovery. THe PaTIENTS ExpERIENcE about potential Shouldice patients learned about the hos- pital from previous shouldice patients. Although thousands of mends had referred patients, loads were less likely to recommend shouldice because of the generally regarded simplicity of the surgery, often considered a bread and butter operation. Typically, some(prenominal)(prenominal) patients had their hassle diagnosed by upersonal physician and then contacted Shouldice directly. Many *tru made this diagnosing themselves. The process experienced by shouldice patients depended on whether or not they lived close enough to the hospital to visit the facility to obtain a diagnosis.Approximately 10% of shouldice patients came from outside the province o f ontario, most of these from the United States. Anoth er 60/o of patients lived beyond the Toronto area. These out-of-own patients often were diagnosed by mail using the Medical k presentlyledge Questionnaire shown in Exhibit L. base on information in the questionnaire, a shouldice operating surgeon would make up the type of hernia the respondent had and whether there were signs that some risk might be associated with surgery (for example, an overweight or heart condition, or a patient who had suffered a heart attack or a stroke n the past six months to a year, or whether a general or local anesthetic was required). At this point, a patient was given a operating date and sent a brochure describing the hospital and the shouldice method. If necess ary, a sheet outlining a weight-loss program front to surgery was excessively sent. A small proportion was recalld treatment, either because they were overweight, be an undue medical risk, or because it was determined that they did not have a hernia. Arriving at the clinic between 100 p. M. and 300 p. M. the duy before the operation, a patient joined other atients in the waiting room. He or she was presently examined in one of six interrogative rooms staffed by surgeons who had entire their operating schedules for the day. This examination required no more than 20 minutes, unless the patient needed reassurance. (patients typic ally exhibited a moderate level of disturbance until their operation was completed. ) At this point it occasionally was discovered that a patient had not corrected his or her weight problem others might be found not to have a hernia at all. In either case, the patient was sent home. After checking administrative details, about an hour fter arrivin 8 at the hospital, a patient was directed to the room number shown on his or her wrist band. Throughout the process, patients were asked to keep their luggage (usually light) with them. All patient rooms at the hospital were semiprivate, c ontainig two beds. patients with standardized jobs, backgrounds, or interests were delegate to the same room to the extent possible. upon reaching their rooms, patients busied themselves unpack ing, getting acquainted with roommates, shaving themselves in the area of the opera- tion, and ever-changing into pajamas. At 430 P. M. , a shields orientation provided the roup of incoming patients with information about what to expect, including the need for exercise after the opera- tion and the daily routine. Accordi. g to Alan OiDell, Half are so nervous they dont remember more than. ,, Dinner was then served, followed by foster recreation, and tea and cookies at 900 p. M. Nurses emphasized the importance of attendance at that time because it provided an fortune for preoperative patients to talk with those whose operations had been completed former that same duy. Patients to be moldd on early were awakened at 530 A. M. tcl be given preop sedation. An attempt was ade to schedule op erations for roommates at approximately the same time. patients were taken to the preoperating room where the circulating nurse administered Demerol, an analgesic, 45 minutes before surgery. A a few(prenominal) minutes foregoing to the first operation at 720 A. M. , the surgeon assigned to each patient administered Novocain, a local anesthetic, in the operati. g room. This was in contrast to the typical hospital procedure in which patients were sedated in their rooms prior to being taken to the operating rooms. upon the completion of their operation, during which a few patients were cha tty, and fuily aware of hat was going on, patients were invited to get off the operating table and walk to the post-operating room with the help of their surgeons. According to the director of nursing 99 percent accept the surgeon,s invitation. while we use wheelchairs to return them to their rooms/ the walk from the operating table is for psychological as well as physiologicai blood pressure, res piratory reasons. patients present to themselves that they can do it, and they start their all-important exercise immediately. Throughout the day after their operation, patients were encouraged to exercise by nurses and housekeepers alike. By 900 P. M. n the duy of their operations, all patients were ready and able to walk down to the eat room for tea and cookies, even if it meant climbing steps, to help indoctrinate the new unrefined admitted that duy. on the fourth morning, patients were ready for dis- charge. During their stay, patients were encouraged to take advantage of the opportunity to explore the premises and make new friends. Some members of the staff mat that the patients and their attitudes were the most important shouldice hospital Limited (Abridged) 593 (HIBIT EF 1 Medical lnformation O,uestionnai re 5 n,ti,rBER (or Rural Route or P. O. Box) Province/StateTown/City SHOULDICE infirmary 7750 Bayview Avenue Box 379, Thornhill, Ontario L3T 4A3 Canada Phone (418) 88 9-1 125 Telephone (Thornhill One milliliter join Metro Toronto) tq-Frhrr. 1i il3$-1- rr=CBlvlATlON Please give note of lnsurance Company and Numbers. MEDICAL .nS,-IANCE (Please bring hospital certificates) INFORMATION nLR3r,r- . a r. l IJCE (Please bring insurance certificates) OTHEH SURGICAL INSURANCE Patients who live at a distance often prefer their examination, admission and operation to be set all on a single visit to save making two lengthy journeys. The whole kEl&anrr Name of Business argon you the owner? f Retired Yes purpose of this questionnaire is to make such arrangements possible, although, of course, it cannot replace the examination in any way. Its completion and return will not put you Former Occupation No under any obligation. Do you ingest? Please be sure to fill in both sides. tr- n? -? asr,ssrcn date? (Please give as much advance notice as possible) ry*esi,-s =-(, Sa-a cr Sunday. ffiEr h ,s *crJ FOR OFFICE USE ONLY symbol of hernia This information wi ll be treated as confidential. IEXIEEIEEIRIE ffi iMEfrgles ory cqJd n=trr emailprotected rE cr*en rr d yotrr operatirn a tir lrctrr ru=ight EXHIBIT 1 (ConttnueolPLEASEBEACCURATE Misleadrngfuures.. *firl. cFeoxr3 admissionday,couldmeanposFonementolyqJropeGlhontrlll,yc-,,e,Etri Waist (muscles THIS IS YOUR CHART PLEASE MARK IT APPROXIMATE SIZE. walnut tree (or less) Hens Egg or Lemon GraPefruit (or more) INFORMATION ESSENTIAL senseless and put that apply to your hernias Use only the sections v. lu H a / in each relaxed)ins is your health now E treatment drive Excess bodY fluids Chest Pain (angina) lr perpetual Heartbeat Ulcers Anticoagulants (to check blood-clotting or to thin the blood) F t Name of any(prenominal) Prescnbe pills, tablets or caPsutres 1otake regularlY A nY condition Please tick regular for which You are having Diabetes Asthma & Bronchitis Y ,JI GOOD Blood ,JI Chest (not exPancld il il t t I il I il still be finished in time for a 1230 P. M. dejeuner in the st aff dining room. Upon finishing lunch, surgeons not scheduled to operate in the afterhigh noon examined incoming patients. A surgeons day ended by 400 P. M. In addition, a surgeon could expect to be on call one weekday night in ten and one weekend in ten. Alan ODell commented that the position appealed to remedys who want to watch their children grow up. A doctor on call is rarely called to the element of the Shouldice Program.Accordig to Dr. Byrnes Shouldice, son of the founder, a surgeon on the staff, and a 50% owner of the hospital Patients sometimes ask to stay an extr a day. Why? Well, think about it. They are basically well to begin with. But they arrive with a problem and a certain amount of nervousness, tension, and anxiety about their surgery. Their first morning here theyre oPerated on and experience a Sense of relief from Something thats been botheri. g them for a long time. hospital and has regular hours. Accordi. g to Dr. They are immediately able to get around, and t heyve got a three -duy holiday ahead of them with a Per- ObneyWhen I interview ProsPective surgeons, I look for experience and a good education. I puree to gain some insight into their interior(prenominal) situation and personal interests and habits. I besides try to find out why a surgeon wants to switch positions. And I try to determine if hes willing to perform the repair exactly as ,it i ? ffi il JilI% ILx *,x* have the run of the 3 patients, make friends easily, and hospital. In summer, the most commonality after-effect from the surgery is sunburn. hes told. This is no place for prima donnas. Tue NuRsEs ExPERtENcE Dr. Shouldice added 34 full-time-equivalent nurses staffed Shouldice each 24 hour period.However, during non- run hours, only six full-time-equivalent nurses were on the premises at any given time. While the Canadian acutecare hospital average ratio of nurses to patients was 1,4, at Shouldice the ratio was 115. Shouldice nurses spent an unusually large equilibri um of their time in counseli. g activities. As one suPervisor commented, We dont use bedpans. According to a manager, shouldice has a waiting list of nurses wanting to be hired, while other hospitals in Toronto are short-staffed and perpetually subordinate resident in surgery performs. Hernia repair Tiaditionally recruiting. hernia is often the first operation thatThe hospital employed 10 full-time surgeons and other major operations. This is quite wrong, ES is borne out by the resulting high coming back rate. It is a tricky anatomical area and occasionally very complicated, specially to the novice or those doing very fer*hernia repairs each year. But at Shouldice hospital a surgeon learns the Shouldice proficiency over a periol of several months. He learns when he can go fast anc when he mustiness go slow. He develops a pace and a L?. cardinalJ. T,i*111-x1*1iilIt. TJ geons. We teach each other and try to encourage a 8 each duy. a scrubbing scheduled operation at 730 A. M. hortly before the first If the first operation was routine, it usually was completed by 815 A. M. At its conclusion, the surgical team helped the patient walk from the room and summoned the next patient. After scrubbrng, the surgeon could be ready to operate again at 830 A. M. Surgeons were advised to take a coffee break after their second or third operation. Even So, a surgeon could complete three routine operations and a fourth involving a recurrence and Shouldice Hospital Limited (Abridged) tr achieve absolute perfection. Excellence is the eneml of good. part-time adjunct surgeons. TWo anesthetists were also on site.The anesthetists floated among cases except when general anesthesia was in use. Each operating team required a surgeon, an assistant Surgeofl, d scrub nurse, and a circulating nurse. The operatirg load varied from 30 to 36 operations per duy. As a result, each surgeon typically performed three or four oPerations A typical surgeons duy started with a L regarded as a r elatively simple operation compared to group effort. And he learns not to take risks Tne DocroRs ExPERIENcE 595 a Chief Surgeon Degani assigned surgeons to an oPerating room on a daily basis by noon of the preceding da1 This allowed surgeons to examine the specific patienE hat they were to operate on. Surgeons and assistants H-ere rotated both few days. Cases were assigned to give do. tors a non-routine operation (often involving a recurrenc several times a week. More complex Procedures er assigned to more older and experienced members of th staff. Dr. Obney commented If something goes wrong, we want to make sure tha we have an experienced surgeon in charge. Experience is most important. The typical general surgeon mai perform 25 to 50 hernia operations per yeaL Ours Perform 750 or more. The L0 full-time surgeons were paid a straight salan typically fi,aa,000. In addition, bonuses to doctors ere distributed monthly. These depended on Profit, indir-icual productivity, and performa nce. The total bonus Pc-i paid to the surgeons in a recent year was aPProximate-r $400,000. Total surgeon compensation (including benefir was approximately 15% more than the average income for kitchen staff several times a d,ay, and the hospitar staff to oD efi, weuse arl fresh ingredients and prepare the nutriment from scratch in the kitchen. ,, The director of hold pointed out a surgeon in Ontario. Training in the shouldice technique was important eat together. Accordig to ecause the procedure could not be varied. It was accomplished through direct supervision by one or more of the senior surgeons. The rotation of teams and frequent consultations allowed for an ongoing opportunity to appraise performance and take corrective action. where possibre, I former shouldice patients suffering recurrences were assigned to the doctor who performed the first operation to allow the doctor to rearn from his mistake. ,, Dr. obney commented on being a shouldice surgeon ilH*XXHltiiJf mxx$ ing n otes for confidence, e.. oriaging eachither, and walking around, getting exercis.. briourse, e,re in the rooms straightenirg ,p throughout the day. This gives the housekeepers chancl to josh with the patients and to encourage them to exercise. A doctor must decide after several years whether he to do this for the rest of his liie because, just a Iultt in other speciarties-for exampre, radiology_h. s loses touch with other medical discip contestations. If h stays for five years, he doesnt leave. Even among junior doctors , few elect to leave. ?,. i. . 1.. lrtii. ii. . )ii. i. The shouldice Hospital contained two facilities in one uilding-the hospital and the clinic. On its first-level, the hospital contained the kitchen and dining rooms. The sec_ ond level contained a large, open tounge area,the admis_ sions offices, patient rooms, and a spacious grass-covered Florida room. The third revel had aaaitiond fatient rooms and recreational areas. patients could be seln visiting in each othersrooms, walking up and down hall shipway, loung_ irg in the sunroom, and making use of light recreational facilities ranging from a pool table to an exercycle. Alan oDell pointed out some of the features of the hospital The rooms contain no telephone or tv set ets. If a patient needs to make a call or wants to watch terevi_ sion, he or she has to take a walk. The steps are designed specialry with a smalr rise to alow patients recently operated on to negotiate the stairs without undue discomfort. E-Iy rqluru foot of the hospital is carpeted to reduce the hospital olfaction and the possi_ bility of a fall. Carpetir,g urro gives tf,e phce a smell other than that of disinfJctant. This- facility was designed by an architect with input from Dr. Byrnes shouldice and Mrs. w. H. uiquhart (the daughter of the founder). The facility was discussed for years and many changes in the lans were made before the first concrete was poured. A number of anomalous policies were also instituted. For example, parents accompanying children here for an operation stay free.. you may enjoy why we can do it, but we learned that *. rrre more in nursing costs than we spend for the parents room and board. have- only three on my housekeeping staff for the entire facility. one of the reasons for f* housekeep_ that we dont need to change rinens during a ? ,tr patients four- duy stay. Arso, the medical staff doesln,t The clinic housed five operating rooms, a moil atory, and the patient-recovery room. In totar, the stimated cost to furnish an operating room was $30,000. This was con_ siderably less than for other hospitals requiring a bank of equipment with which to administer anesthetics for each room. At shourdice, two fluid units were used by the anesthetists when needed. In addition, the complex had one crash draw per floor for use rf a patient should suffer a heart attack or stroke. ilin,4i4? ljiij. i. i. ))1 Alan ODell described his job we try to meet peoples needs and make th is as good a place to work as possible. in that respect is a strong concern or employees here. goose egg is fired. This was freshr reinfor. -d by Dr. shouldice, who described a situa_ tion involvirg two employees who confessed to theft in the hospital. They agreed to seek psychiatric help and were allowed to remain on the itu. l As a resurt, turnover is low. our administrative and support staff are non_ union,. b, we try to maintain a pay scale higher(prenominal) than the union scale for comparabl. Jou, in the area. we have a profit-sharing prin that i, ,. prrate from the docto* year the administrative and support -LTt staff divided up $60,000. If work needs to be done, peopre pitch in to herp each other.A unique aspect oi o,,r, administration is that I insist that each secretary is trained to do anothers work and in an emergency is able to switch to another function immediatlly. we don,t have an governing body graph. A chart tends io make people think theyre boxed in jobs . a r try to stay one night a week, having dinner and ristening to the patientJto find out how things are really goinf uro. rnd here. Patients and staff were served food prepared in the same kitchen, and staff members picked up iood from a cafeteria line placed in the very .. r,t. , of the kitchen. This proided an opportunity for everyone to chat with he operating(a) Costs The 2004 budgets for the hospital and clinic were close to $8. 5 millions and $3. 5 million, respectively. 6 Shouldice Hospital Limited (Abridged) Sgz EXH lB lT FIoor Supenisor 2 Organization Chart Lab (4) operational Laundry Room Housekeeping Office Accounting Medical reason (3) (2) Supervisor I Head Head Nurse urse (2) Record (2) dietetic (r7) I5 (2) (3) i aleets three limes a year or as needed. bUeets as needed (usually twice a month). lnformallv reports to Executive Committee. Physical Surgeons Assistant fructify (12) Surgeons (7) Anesthetist (t) pared to an average charge of $5,240 for operations per_ ormed el sewhere. if. l. rlii. ,i. l. ,,. illl. . l.. . . . ) Hernia operations were among the most common per_ formed on mares. In 2000 an estimated r. ,000,000 such operations were performed in the united states alone. Round-trip fares for traver to Toronto from various major cities on the North American continent ranged from roughly $20A to $600. when our backlog of scheduled operations gets excessively large, we The hospitar arso provided annual checkups to alumni, free of charg.. Muny occurred at the time of the According to Dr. Shouldice wonder patient reunion. The most recent eunion, featuring dinner and a floor show, was held at afirst-class hotel in down_ town Toronto and was attende d by 1,000 former patients, many from outside Canada. ho* many peopre decide instead to prfor* the operation. Every have their rocal doctor time weve expandea o11 capacity, th backrog has declined briefly, onry to climb or,. u again. Right now at 2,400,1 ir rarger than it has ever been and is grow_ irg by 100 every six months. The hospitar relied unaccompanied on word-of-mouth adver_ tising, the importance of which was suggested by the results of a poil carried out by i. i,i. ,)i. . ,. ii. . ,. ). ,.. . when asked about major questions confronting the man_ agement of the hospital, Dr. shourdice cited I aesire to seek ways of increasing the hospitals capacity while at the same time maintaining . oriror over the quatity of service delivered, the future role of government in the operations of the hospital, and the use of the shouldice name by potential competitors. As Dr. shouldice put it Im a doctor first and an entrepreneur second. For students of Depaul lrxiriuit 3 shows a portion results). Although little systematic data about university as part of a project of these atients had been collected, Alan oDell remarked that ,,if we had to rery on wearthy patients onry, our practice would be much smaller. ,, Patients were attracted to the hos pitar, in part,by its reasonable place . Charges for a typical operation were four days of hospital sta y at $? 20 p. iau anda $650 surgical fee for a prim ary inguinar (the most common example, we courd refuse permission to other doctors ah. hospitar. The y may copy our technique and Tisappry it or misinform *,. i. patients about the use of it. rni, resurts in failure, and we are f, who want to visit hernia). An additional fee of $300 was assessed f generar anesthesia was required (in about 20% of cases). These charges com_ ExHlBlr Direction you. 5. B interested that the technique will be blamed. But Shourdice Hospitar Annuar Patient Reunion Data For each question, please place a check mark as it applies to 4 /7 22 Nationalitv Directions please place a check mark in nation you represent and please write in your province, state or democracy where it applies. Canada America Europe J6 - province sate a*r, ee 2 /o uarl ,o/ // 63% 5 /6 /960 7 5 %dt 39. 54% 5/. /6% fl. 63% 4/. 56% 30. 23% /6. 26% occupation Ilave you been o vernight in a hospital other than u* houldice befone your operation? * j _ No lZ What brought Shouidice Hospital to your attention? Friend 8 ,1 Doctor Rerative . . , 6r. 1//o _0. %% EzW,/. rticre ,9 , Did you have a si,gle 26 or double /6 other 4 ,iiJZw hernia operation? 56,/4% fi. s6% 9. Is this your first Annual Reunion? yes No fi .10 . , If no, how many reunions have you iiM ,,afz,fl tt 10. Do you feel that Shouldice Hospital to, ,* * per,son? r0 Most by all odds Definitety 6 JZ very(prenominal) iittle not 66,05% /a%% 7 Z_. reaubrc _fl 42. 6J% 6-/0 ruo,rn,re 5 z17J% r , at all Shouldice Hospital Limited (Abridged) 599 EXHIBIT 3 (Continued) fhat move you the most about your stay at Shouldice? check one help for each of the following. for operation and hospital P1ease s non or so 27. 9d1 Imporiant /4 Somewhat Imporbant 32. 56% // Somewhat Important 25. 5/l /5 Somewhat Important 34. 5E% Not 7 /6. 26% Important 32. 56% Not ImPortant 6 /S,6dl 3 6,96% Not 27,9/k Somewhat 5 /0 Important 25 Important n. fi% 23,2fl1 56. /5% sbouldice Hospital hardly seemed like a hospital at all. Somewhat Very 5 /3 Importani 25 Importani Important //. 63% 30. 23% 55. /4% give the MAIN REASON why you reiurned for this annual In a few words, reunion. Very Important 2 4. 65% SomewhaiVery 39. 53% Friendships witb Patients Not Important / 2. 3? l Not Important 3 696% Not ImporLant were doctors, and it is our obligation to help other Alan ODell added his own concerns surgeons learn. On the other go , its quite clear that others arc tfying to emulate us. Look at this ad. The publicizing is shown in Exhibit 4. ) This makes me believe that we should add to our capacity, either here or elsewhere. Here, we could go to Saturday operations and increase our caPacity by 2O%. Throughout the year, no oPerations are sched- How should we be marketing our services? Right now we dont advertise directly to patients.Were uled for Saturdays or Sundays, although patients whose operations are s cheduled late in the week remain in the hospital over the weekend. Or, with an enthronisation of perhaps $4 million in new sPace/ we even afraid to send out this new brochure weve pu together, unless a potential patient specificallrrequests it, for fear it will generate too much demand. Our records show that just under 1% of our EXHIBIT 4 advertising by a Shouldice Competitor could expand our number of beds by 50%, and schedule the operating rooms more heavily. On the other hand, given Sovernment regulation, do we want to invest more in Toronto?Or should we take a shit another hospital with similar design, perhaps in the United States? There is also the chess opening that we could diversify into other specialties offering similar opportunities such as eye surgerf, yancose veins, or diagnostic services (e. 9. , colonoscopies). For now were also beginnirg the process of groomirg someone to succeed Dr. Degani when he retires. Hes in his early 60s, but at some point well have to add ress this issue. And for good reason, hes resisted changing certain successful procedures that I think we could improve on. We had quite a time changing the schedule for the administration ofDemerol to patients to increase their comfort level during the operation. Dr. Degani has oPPosed a Satutday operating program on the premise that he wontbe here and wont be able to maintain proper control. 500 Shouldice Hospital Limited (Abridged) Canadian Hernra Ctinic Hernias (Ruptures) Required Under local anesthesia as by Canadian method. No Overnight Hospital Stay, Co nsult atio n s Witho ut Char ge 23061St. Rd. 7 BOCA RION, FLA. 33433 482-7755 patients are medical doctors, a significantly high percentage. How should we capttahze on that? Im also concerned about this talk of Saturday operations.We are already getting good utrltzation of this facility. And if we expand further, it will be very difficult to maintain the same attractive of working relationships and attitudes. Already there ar e rumors floatirg around among the staff about it. And the staff is not pleased. The matter of Saturday operations had been a topic of communication among the doctors as well. Four of the older doctors were opposed to it. While most of the younger doctors were indifferent or supportive , at least two who had been at the hospital for some time were particularly concerned about the possibility that the issue would drive wedge between the two groups. As one put it, Id hate to see the practice split over the issue. EruDNOTES Most hernias, knows as external abdominal hernias, are protrusions of some part of the abdominal contents through a hole or slit in the muscular layers of the abdominal wall which is supposed to contain them. Well over 90% of these hernias occur in the groin area. Of thes e,by far the most common are inguinal hernias, many of which are caused by u slight weakness in the muscle layers brought about by the passage of the testicles in male babies through the groin a rea shortly before birth.Aging also contributes to the development of inguinal hernias. Because of the cause of the affliction, 85oh of all hernias occur in males. 2. Based on tracking of patients over more than 30 years, the gross recurrence rate for all operations performed at Shouldice was 0. 8%. Recurrence rates reported in 1. the literature f or these types of hernia varied greatly. However, one text stated, In the United States the gross rate of recurrence for groin hernias approaches 70/. monet ary references in the case are to Canadian dollars. $1 US equaled $1. 33 Canadian on February 23, 3. A11 2004. n Exhibit 2 was prepared by the casewriter, based on conversations with hospital personnel. 4. The chart 5. This figure included a provincially mandated return 6. on investment. The last mentioned figure included the bonus pool for doctors. SIUDY OuEsrtoNs L. What is the market for this seraice? Hout successful is 2. Shouldice Hospital? Define the seraice model for Shouldice . How does each of its elements contribute to the hospitals success? 3. As Dr. Shouldice, what actions, if any, would you take to expand the hospitals capacity and how utould you implement such changes? Shouldice Hospital Limited (Abridged) 601