Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Reality Television

Reality television has strong influence and damaging effects on our society. But let’s face it, we feed on the drama. We love to absorb another life other than our own. Along with it comes the misconception of reality which distorts how one believes they have to behave to gain fame or attention. Reality television is bad for culture because it only elevates money, beauty, and fame above other qualities by promoting inappropriate behavior such as bullying, casual sex, alcohol abuse and bad language. The media plays a major role in selling this trash in order to increase revenue. Reality tv has a strong impact on our society because it distorts our view of reality. It pollutes our minds with Knowledge, attitudes, values, and behavior that are influenced by exposure to reality television and deemed acceptable by society. Our culture serves up degradation as a form of entertainment. Such shows incorporate inappropriate behavior such as bullying, scheming, and manipulating in order to get ahead or get the guy/girl. This is extremely harmful to children and teens because at this age they are seeking out their personal identities and starting to develop relationships with family, friends, and the opposite sex. They indentify with the media for what’s cool and look up to these public figures for how they should act, dress, talk etc. One example how these shows are negative would be MTVs Parental control, where the parents are unhappy with their child’s current choice of whom in which they’re dating. So, they get to choose who they assume would be a better choice for their child. While doing so, their current significant watches as they bf/gf go on a dates with their parent’s choices. This usually results in disrespect and bad mouthing to the parents from the current bf/gf. Some of the stuff is appalling that is said and sexually suggested to a teen audience. Not only do these shows encourage inappropriateness it creates drama because drama creates attention that we all crave at times. Other shows spotlight this lavish lifestyle and make the common person believe that they do can live this life if they model these infamous characters behavior and they too can receive stardom for random careless acts. It mainly bases stardom on physical appearance and how far you will go for the prize whether it be 100,000 or the rich husband. It makes us all superficial, materialistic and really unrealistic. Fall in love in 8 weeks, give me a break. But it’s entertaining and does suck us in. The contestants on these shows contribute to the ideology of competitive elements and stereotyping over working. What kid would want to go to school if he could party all day and have a rich bf gf and receive fame for it as well. I think we all seek another unrealistic lifestyle and these reality shows are giving our youth the message that if they act according they may too receive fame. Although, such shows demonstrate negative values ans are corrupting our youth and perception on things, the media is making money and doesn’t see these shows as negative only a positive asset to their bank account. The media has definitely altered the baseline of civility because money rules all things. The cost for these shows and their content are nothing but cheap. According to a recent article by Laurie Hibberd, she suggests cost has much to do with it. Reality shows cost an average of 400,00 to produce and gain up to 2 million for a dramatic series (Hibberd2002. It’s the less expensive option and ratings sky high , why wouldn’t; they keep these drama on the air. They may lack moral and values but big companies are not bothered by this only bothered by financial gain. Also big companies and organizations back these productions up with service or merchandise. Their only motive is to market their products and services, not to improve quality of programs. For in stance, a clothing label may give out merchandise hoping this may promote their brand. If the reality stars are wearing it, the kids will want to wear it as well. They don’t care what else the show may promote as long as its promoting their brand and resulting in an increase in sales. Reality television I believe has such a negative impact on society because it makes us believe that we can see ourselves on tv. That if we fit the profile that we too may receive stardom. But on the same not it makes us believe that our lives aren’t normal and maybe even boring which may even cause more drama in our life. Also, the media’s interest in making money is a contributing factor to wht such behavior these shows represent are coming into the norm. Reality Television In the year 1992 a new idea was introduced to America and it was called reality television. MTV produced a show called, The Real World that had seven strangers living in a house together and had everything they did filmed. After many failed attempts at trying to make this reality trend catch on, CBS launched Survivor, which pioneered the way for all reality shows to follow in the next decade. It was a show about people battling it out in two separate tribes to their wits end in the jungle and it spread like wildfire across America. Survivor premiere debuted to 28 million viewers and is still on today, a decade and 21 seasons later (McCraley). Reality television did not have the power to tip and become an epidemic until producers began to use clever marketing strategies to bring Survivor to the mass of America. It has been almost twenty years since MTV first attempted to air The Real World with hopes of creating a new type of television America would love. First broadcasted in 1992 it is now the longest running show in MTV’s history and is currently on its twenty-fifth season. It is credited with being the first reality television show aired but it was not the first to grasp America and change the way we watch television. Reality television’s first big tipping point came the night Survivor premiered in May of 2000 on CBS and producers were beyond ecstatic when receiving the numbers the next day of viewers that tuned in (Metz par. 1). An epidemic had begun and it was here to stay. The American Survivor was derived from the Swedish version of the same show but only the first season of America’s Survivor had the same format. Throughout the seasons the producers have added new twists, turns, and contests. The United States version of Survivor is produced by Mark Burnett and hosted by Jeff Probst (Metz par. 1). This one single show caught the eyes of millions of Americans and since then all of our basic channels have been flooded with what we call ‘reality’ television. The format and concepts have changed drastically but there still seems to be a demand for reality television so producers will continue to come up with new ideas until America no longer seems to show interest. Reality television has become a constant target for controversy and complaints but seems to be one of those things we either love to hate or hate to love. Reality television that used to just be fun competition has turned into pregnant teenagers, partying Guidos, rich kids in Los Angeles or eight roommates all sleeping with each other in one house. Each one of these presents obvious controversy for the public eye but the producers do this for a reason. If there is nothing to talk about then no one will talk. The more buzz a producer can build about their show the more people will want to watch (King par. 2). Reality television producers seem to have a certain niche for stirring up as much debate and controversy as they can. As ridiculous as reality television shows have recently become with at least 6 different ones all involving competition of baking the perfect cake, Americans are what propel this industry. We continually watch them and keep their ratings up so they are beginning to take over other shows such as sitcoms and dramas. Some reality television shows are even getting signed for more seasons than non-reality shows are receiving. Survivor and The Real World being prime examples, both having over twenty seasons of airtime (Metz par. ). It is not a question of whether or not reality television is or is not an epidemic, it is a question of how did Survivor manage to turn this industry around and make everyone fall in love with it. The gist of Survivor goes a little something like this; the show starts with sixteen average Americans who are brought to a remote island to fend for themselves. The island is usually a very unforgiving place with no modern conveniences. The sixteen individuals are divided into two teams. Every few days, one of the teams gathers at a tribal council and votes someone off the island. You can gain immunity by winning the challenges, which are very fun and interesting to watch. Once a total of six people remain the tribes merge. After this, it is every person for him or herself. The last Survivor at the end wins one million dollars (Charkow). It is all about who will make just the right alliances and just the right enemies in order to take home the money. Over the past years connecting with people on common interests has become an important aspect of living. Reality TV allows us to do just that; we can watch a show Monday night and then have something to talk about the next day at work or school. We can have a common interest with someone without really having to like the same things. Curiosity also plays a role in our obsession with this trend, viewers will imagine themselves in these certain situations and think how they would react but the difference is the viewers get to watch from afar and not have any consequences for what they might choose (Hotchkiss par. 2). Reality television has completely changed the entertainment industry in that it creates a fun way to follow these participants and since they are real people with real conflicts their lives matter to us. This seems to be one reason surrounding why reality television has become so captivating for America and just why it is undeniably here to stay for the long haul. So what exactly did Survivor have that managed to captivate America and keep us here? Unpredictability with relatability (Crum). Each week there were these normal human beings performing risky tasks unknowing if they were going to be sent home the following week. Americans began to watch, found their favorite contestants, and had to stay to make sure they made it until the end. Survivor producers also knew when creating this show the factor of relatability would play a major role. By taking normal human beings that are not trained actors, viewers begin to realize they may personally know one of the contestants or at least know them through the six degrees of separation. Even if they do not somehow know a contestant there is always one that they can relate to and connect with. When a viewer has a personal connection in a show it makes them want to invest more and they are willing to dedicate an hour of their time each week to tune in and see how their favorites are doing (Yazbek). Producers and casting directors thrived off of this concept of relatability. Each and every contestant is different in some way that producers believe will reach a vast majority of viewers in America. If there is a contestant representing each main demographic there is at least one person for almost everyone to connect with and want to root for. Once the viewers lock in their favorites they religiously watch Survivor in order to check up and make sure their contestant is still in and surviving. This is what helped Survivor manage to tip the reality trend (McCraley). The casting directors and producers knew exactly what to look for in the contestants they choose and they chose perfectly. America originally tuned in for Survivor’s first premiere because they did not know what to expect from these ordinary people getting their own television show and Survivor’s marketing team created a hype that was able to draw in over 28 million viewers for the first time (Metz par. 1). Dr. Kathleen King, who is a motivational keynote speaker, believes that Survivor uses their contestants as characters as a marketing strategy. If situations can't be resolved in a timely manner, people grow frustrated and bored with them. Our brain starts telling us, through our emotions, that it is time to move on. For a show to be successful, it has to introduce a parade of situations, just like real life would. So, how does a show keep us engaged in between situations? What keeps us tuned in? The characters . Characters are what we connect to. Characters engage us at a completely different level than situations. Situations are an intellectual challenge. Characters create emotional bonds. We care what happens to them (King). This caring, this connection, provides the emotional overtones that keep the situations of Survivor consistently interesting. Americans instantly fell in love with this nail-biting reality show as soon as it made its debut. From the get-go producers created characters that they knew America would fall in love with, each for different reasons. Although Survivor is not scripted certain teams are paired together and certain scenes may be edited in hopes of causing a stir with viewers. Producers create good and bad controversy to evoke emotions from their viewers. Once you are able to pull at the heartstrings of your viewers and have them emotionally involved with your characters you can create a true bond (Morrison par. ). Survivor made viewers fall in love with certain characters so when they were backstabbed or voted off they felt emotions for them. They would continue to watch so they knew exactly how their season would end and who took the winning spot of someone they wished would have won or stuck with their favorites until they would win (Hotchkiss par. 2). This level of emotional connection created a st ickiness factor that helped Survivor stay with its viewers. One more reason Survivor has lasted so long and continually intrigued viewers is they way it is shot. A reality show's segment producers or story editors usually assemble storyboards and shooting scripts, which are important tools for shaping the direction of the show. In the TV sitcom and drama world, these people would be known as writers. Unlike writers, the Writers Guild of America does generally not recognize them and so they are not union employees. This distinction could be seen as a disservice to the segment producers and story editors, but it benefits the show in that it lowers production costs and it helps preserve the idea that the shows are real and unscripted. It also allows reality shows to keep on rolling when a writer strike hits, like it did in fall 2007. Many reality show staffers have contested the distinction in ongoing court cases since 2005 (Poniewozik par. 2). Reality shows typically do not have scripts, but there is often a shooting script or an outline that details aspects of an episode or part of the show. For example, it can set up a specific challenge for the contestants on Survivor. A shooting script could also create conflict between some of the participants by pairing specific people as roommates or partners. Producers create shooting scripts with viewers in mind thinking about what they might like to see and what would make them stay tuned. In extreme cases, a shooting script might include a storyboard, which is a visual representation of the concept that physically illustrates what will occur in a scene (Metz par. 2). Ultimately, reality producers and editors have a lot of control over what happens on the show, just by the sheer fact that they have put the people together in certain situations, and they are controlling what footage gets aired and what does not. If Survivor were just a 24/7 camera on contestants living in the jungle viewers would get bored. Producers pick and choose the best material and content to air because obviously America does not want to watch strangers sleeping or eating their food, they want to see conflict, emotion, and turmoil. If it were not for Survivor we would never know if some other show would have had the power to tip the reality television trend. Thanks to Survivor, its stickiness factor, and its relatability we will never have to worry about that. Survivor paved the way for the majority of America’s favorite television shows we watch today and opened doors for a new format of television programming. There is no way to tell how long reality television is here to stay but at the rate it is going, it seems like it will be putting up a fight until America stops watching. After all, reality television would not have already lasted this long if it wasn’t a survivor.

Americans health

Americans are becoming more concerned with their health than ever before. This included regular exercise and as well as the quality of their diet. This has become a current phenomenon in the last few decades which the American public has yet to see before. Another recent development in the ways in which Americans regard the quality of their diet, is in the quality of the foods that they eat.The push now is for organic foods from livestock which were treated humanely. The injection of hormones into our nation’s cattle, many can say is an example of abuse towards the animals.This may or may not be true. However, hormone injection does offer a myriad of health problems which has caused the European Union as well as the nation of Japan, to be very reluctant in accepting beef imports from the United States in recent years. This has resulted in trade disputes and a sizable trade deficit between America and these two governing bodies. However, it is in the opinion of the EU, Japan an d a sizable percentage of the American people, who are weary of scientifically altering one’s cattle in the face of higher profits.What makes hormone injections even more dangerous is the long lasting half life of the hormone injections which the cattle are forced to inject into their body. The hormones do not leave the cattle when it is slaughtered. This alone brings enough danger to the safety of the meat but the hormones continue to exist in the waste of the cow as well as in the sweat secretions of the cattle as well. This allows a further spread of the hormone and thus multiplies and creates environmental as well as health concerns which have only recently been addressed through the demands of a concerned public.However, in the face of such concerns, the beef industry will not be compelled to make the necessary changes unless forced to do so by Congress as there is simply too much money to be made in the eyes of the owners. Since the 1970’s, our nation’s ca ttle have been injected with growth hormones for the simple reason that such practices yield more profit for the owner. The cow grows larger than the cattle ever would have on his own and does so at a faster pace.This allows the cattle rancher to slaughter the cattle which will yield a larger supply of beef and at a faster pace; thus decreasing the time, cost and effort that the cattle owner would otherwise have to spend on the feeding and housing of the cattle. It is a win/win situation for the cattle owner and as a result, a high majority of the more than 33 million cattle which are slaughtered each year for the human consumption of their meat have within their systems, beef growth hormones. It seems surprising that such a wide spread practice would not have received more attention that it has in the recent past.Except for the high profile libel suit by the cattle owners of America against Oprah Winfrey who raised suspicion about the safety of the beef industry in America back in 2002; a libel suit which was eventually thrown out, there has been little concern by the American public as a whole, concerning the assumed damage which beef hormones cause in our nation’s cattle. This high level of apathy seems to now be a thing of the past as the number of concerned Americans grows exponentially. On January 1, 1989, the European community, now called the European Union, placed a ban on American beef imports where growth hormones were used.By the late 1980’s, this would constitute a very large percentage of America’s beef supply and a blow was sent to America’s beef industry. However much this decision riled the beef industry in America, such decisions were not without reason. Europe had become fearful of the growth hormone, diethylstilbestrol, the hormone used in making cattle grow past their normal size, since the 1980’s. This hormone was also seen in baby foods and there were more than a number of tragic cases in which small ch ildren were subject to brain defects from the injection of their baby food.It was because of growing fears against the hormone, as well as actual cases of Europeans that had gotten sick, that the ban was put in place. The ban was not geared only towards American but all countries in the world where Europe got their meat from. The ban was widespread and universal. Europe then, as well as now, has expressed their overwhelming preference for hormone free meat. Other countries have complied with the wish but America still continues to treat a large majority of its cattle with growth hormone in the desire to increase profits.These decisions are contrary to what the Federal Food and Drug Administration, in alliance with the US Department of Agriculture, have decided that beef that are treated with this hormone create no danger in those that eat it. This may be from the motivation of profits more than the safety of the cattle as well as the people who eat it. Cattle which are treated with this growth hormone, can expect to reach its targeted weight of 1,000 lbs 21 days sooner than cattle which are not treated with the hormone. Also, the relatively low cost of the hormone treatment; $1 per implant, yields a cost of more than $100 a head.This is sought in what is often times, a relatively unstable industry. There is a great deal of money to be made or lost with this decision and the United States has continued to fight the decisions by the EU and Japan over what they see to be blatant examples of unfair trade practices. The United States points to a 1988 report by the World Health Organization which states that human consumption of the growth hormone when it stays below 1. 4 and 2. 1 micro kilograms provides no safety scare for the people who consume the meat.What was not shown by the United States was the fact that in the nearly twenty years since this report was published, the among of growth hormones which are injected into the cattle now exceed these paltry amounts as in America, the belief seems to be: more is better. Cattle are getting larger and larger every few years. The reason for this is overwhelm from growth hormones as the improved quality of the foods which the cattle now feed on, would never be able to yield such dramatic results as what is currently being seen in America’s cattle.Specifically, growth hormones have been thought to create the most damage in women and in small girls. Cancer can develop in the breasts as well as colon and pancreas. Also, â€Å"the growth hormone can cause girls to reach puberty at a faster clip than what is natural. † This is a key theme to the growth hormone as it speeds up the natural processes of the body and wreaks havoc on the internal organs of those who are treated with the hormone. It is believed that the levels of growth hormone which the cattle injects, does not completely pass from the meet to the individual and that the hormone is not meant for direct human consumption.What s erves as the most dangerous aspect of this, are the occurrences when the hormone is not kept in the strict environment in which it was designed. When the growth hormone passes at a higher concentrated level than what is advised, either through human error, the beef industry being ignorant as to the modes of transportation that the hormone can take, or in the differences in the rate at which the cattle injects the hormone, adverse reactions will and have occurred.There are more than just the immediate health concerns which need to be examined. The strong half life of these hormones add to the environmental concerns which now need to be addressed, A large portion of the hormone passes through the feces of the cow and ends up in the environment and through the normal ecological system, can easily end up in other foods as well as the drinking water of the public. This could create a very large problem, not only for the cattle but also those who have the misfortune of consuming the water .It has been reported that cattle that have drunk downstream from cattle that have been treated with growth hormone have been underweight and have been subjective to a high level of health concerns and problems. In Central Illinois, this occurred but was not caught in time by the cattle rancher at the time. The cow was slaughtered with a high level of growth hormone within his body and the meat, officials now believe, was highly tainted and not only posed a serious threat to those who ate the meat, but in reality, caused a number of very sick individuals who took weeks to recover from their ailments.As it is very hard to pinpoint where the beef went, the FDA was able to nearly pinpoint where the beef was consumed and can only point out that such a high level of coincidence is not plausible. It is the mismanagement of this hormone which is creating concern in many of the country’s scientists and environmentalists. â€Å"We said that we would not be surprised if large levels o f these hormones showed up in the nation’s drinking supply. † This, according to John McClain, director for the Centers of Biological Research states recently.Dr. McClain also states that he estimates that more than thirteen tons of the hormone DES is released into the nation’s drinking water every year. Not only does he state that such amounts will create an adverse living environment among the wildlife in the area, but for the people as well who have the misfortune of consuming the water as well. The concerns continue to mount as the United States and Canada stubbornly insist that there is no reason for alarm and that their cattle will continue to be fed this growth hormone.Scientists for the beef industry continue to claim that either the evidence is inconclusive or that no danger is presented to the general population as the levels of hormone which s used to treat the cattle is so minute as never to be able to cause harm of any kind. â€Å"The growth hormone which is used to treat our nation’s cattle, poses no threat to the environment or the people whom it comes in contact with. Our nation’s beef supply is safe to eat. † Although not to the same degree, such statements are reminiscent to the tobacco’s responses in the 1970’s and 1980’s concerning the growing concern over the safety of smoking cigarettes.Such statements were accepted by the general public when there did not exist, enough evidence to refute such statements but when it became clear that smoking caused cancer and other such diseases, such statements were no longer accepted. Many in the scientific community believe that the beef industry is going to suffer a similar fate if they continue to refute the concerns of the scientific community over the human consumption and environmental reactions when coming in contact with these growth hormones.Another concern is the safety of the milk which comes directly from cattle; many of whom are being treated with the growth hormone. A larger cow will create a higher yield of milk for its owner; thus increasing profits. The growth hormone BHG is often used to increase milk production in cows. However, the FDA’s decision in 1993 to allow for the treatment of cows with this hormone is outdated. This is a common theme which can be seen in much of the American research concerning the safety of growth hormones.The scientific research, or simply an expression of concern within the European Union, is relatively recent whereas the American research community is not being allowed to conduct the proper number of tests on the effects of the growth hormone. Either that or their findings are being refuted. There have been a number of concerns by large bodies of farmers and cattle growers in such situations. In 1994, the Wisconsin Farmers Union started a national hotline for concerned dairy farmers who were concerned over the quality of their milk from cows who had been subjected to the growth hormone.One New York dairy farmer was forced to replace 135 out of his entire herd of 200 cows because the growth hormone that he fed his cows, produced milk that was tainted. The growth hormone also led to hoof disease as well as open sores and eternal bleeding on more than a few of his cows. This should lead to a third tier of concern over the treatment of cattle with the growth hormone. Not only does the hormone present dangers to the population which consumes the meat and the environment which absorbs the waste products of the cattle, but the cattle itself.In the same way that steroids and other human growth hormones present stronger and faster athletes, only to yield a number of health concerns in the future, so too is the reaction of cattle who are subjective to the hormone. Usually, this is not a problem for cattle which is to be slaughtered by the end of the month as the hormone usually is not given enough time to cause damage in the cattle. However, cows which are used primarily for the milk that they give and thus are allowed to live, this increases the chances that adverse reactions within the cow will show itself within the cow.This is to be expected as â€Å"the growth hormones which are given to cows, creates an unnatural environment for the cow and as a result, the animal will often times react adversely and diseases will spread. † Also, cows who are forced to yield an unnatural amount of milk; a level which their bodies were not meant to provide, often times leaves the cow malnourished and sickly from an over stimulation of the cow’s body. This will lead to a shorter life span for these cows which are used to yield milk to its owner.A burn out effect for the cow will follow and whether the meat is fit for human consumption or not, the cow will simply be destroyed as his useful life on earth has been prematurely cut short through science and in the face of higher profits. Despite the evidence that the treatment of gro wth hormones creates in cows and in the people who eat and drink the milk and meat which these cattle provide, the FDA and other government sponsored scientific communities have stubbornly insisted that there is no adverse reactions on any level, to the consuming of the byproducts of cattle that have been previously treated with this growth hormone.Not only would the FDA be reluctant to place any restrictions or at least warning labels on such beef, they prohibited dairies from making such claims on their own products or in the press. There seemed to be a moratorium on the issue. However, the dates which these FDA rulings are more than ten years in the past as there has been a severe shortage of current government supported evidence from the United States to show to findings to the claims that growth hormones in our nation’s beef supply, results in the negative health effects which the rest of the developed world believes to be the case.The common use of growth hormones has r esulted in a number of differences. According to Science News, more than 80% of US feedlots inject cattle with growth hormones and that traces of the growth hormone were still seen in the typical cow, more than 195 days after the initial treatment. This is important especially with cows which are used primarily for milk as the cow’s milk supply can be tainted for more than six months from a single treatment. Also, in what seems to be the reason behind the treatment of cows with growth hormones; in 1950, the typical cow produced more than 5300 pounds of milk a year.Today, a cow which has been treated with growth hormones, can expect to yield an amazing 18,000 pounds of milk a year. However, what advantages are given when many believe that this milk is tainted? This only increased the chances that the American consumer will be adversely affected by drinking what the FDS tells him to be safe and good for the body. There is a major difference in the FDA and USDA’s take on the apparent health concerns over the treatment of the nation’s cattle being subjected to growth hormones in order to increase production of their meat and milk, as opposed to what the rest of the world is stating.This is a problem which must be addressed. There is a great deal of money to be made or lost as well as the entire way of life for thousands of the nation’s cattle ranchers and others who are involved in getting the meat to our tables. This comes from the sheer number of tons of beef which Americans consume on a yearly basis as well as the fact that the alternative which is offered in our nation’s supermarkets, often times costs more than twice the price of beef which has been subjected with growth hormones.Coupled with this fact, the claims made by the Food and Drug Administration which states that the consumption of growth hormones is safe; many people will believe this to be the case and will blindly continue their previous eating habits with no con cern for what the rest of the world claims to be the dangers of eating such meats. The evidence which the FDA and other government sponsored organizations are more than ten years old and in some cases, are reaching twenty years old whereas the scientific research which has compelled the European Union as well as Japan to implement bans on the trade of US beef, is much more recent.This fact alone should at least compel Americans to ask the question: â€Å"How safe is the meat and milk which comes from cows who are treated with growth hormones. † There is a push for more organic foods as well since many believe that the injection of hormones in not only beef but also our nation’s fruits and vegetables in order to grow gigantic and unnatural tomatoes and potatoes, can only create further health concerns as it is believed that the consumer is consuming a higher percentage of chemicals and hormones than the natural elements of these fruits and vegetables which people seek t o help them maintain a healthy lifestyle.Growth hormones affect our nation’s beef supply in a number of different ways. First, it affects the life and health of the cow, affects the environment and the wildlife and fish through the fact that the hormone can be introduced to the environment though the feces of the animal as well as the resilient characteristics of the hormone itself, as well as affect the milk which the cow yields to the American public. As a result, major governing bodies in the world have placed a ban on beef, not only from America but in numerous parts of the world, where the cattle have been subject to growth hormones.It would behoove the entire American public to stress the importance of up to date scientific research in order to conclude that measures need to be put in place which will forever ensure that the food which we eat, is safe; safe not only for us but for the environment. WORKS CITED Carlson, Laurie An Informal Social History. New York: Ivan De e Publisher 2001 Meinkle, James Beef Hormones Contributes to Mad Cow Disease London: The Guardian July 5, 1998Narlikar, Armita The World Trade Organization London: Oxford 2005 Nelson, Gerald Genetically Modified Organisms in Agriculture New York: Academic Press. 2004 Naloff, Janet. Hormones: Here’s the Beef www. sciencenews. org Downloaded July 28, 2007 Penske, James. Beef Hormones Believed to Contribute to Health Concerns Charleston Times Courier June 8, 2005 www. FDA. gov United States Food and Drug Administration Downloaded July 27, 2007 www. USDA. gov United States Department of Agriculture

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Poetry and science enjoy equal success in expanding human knowledge Essay

Before answering whether both poetry and science enjoy equal success in expanding human knowledge, one must first understand what poetry and science are and what they do. Poetry is an artist’s way of abstractly conveying his or her ideas through writing so as to stimulate the emotional side of the readers. Science on the other hand, is an objective way of clearly stating facts so as to stimulate the â€Å"formal† or fact craving side of the readers. Poetry presents an object in order to convey a particular message or feeling, whilst science merely presents an object objectively and describes how it is, clearly, in every way possible. Therefore, it is clear that the purpose of these two approaches is quite different. Furthermore, the ways of knowing in poetry and science are somewhat different. Poetry’s ways of knowing are mainly emotion and language, while sciences are mainly language and reason. However, although they have language in common, both of them utiliz e language in different ways and for different purposes. As is obvious from above, both approaches aim to expand two completely different parts of human knowledge. Poetry aims to expand the aesthetic while science the scientific. Therefore, they cannot be assessed on their ability to expand human knowledge based on the same criteria but rather, they should both be assessed based on individual criteria in their own specific areas of knowledge and then compared after being assessed. Assessing them based on the same criteria would much be like comparing a desert with a main course, which would be wrong since they both have different purposes and, although the dessert may not be good at achieving the purpose of the main dish, it could well be excellent at achieving the purposes of a dessert. Since poetry tries to â€Å"touch† the reader’s emotional side aesthetically it must be scrutinized as an art. The purpose of art is to aesthetically touch an emotion which all people supposedly have. Through techniques specific to each art, good artists are able to do this, and this in itself is an expansion of human knowledge in that it causes people to be aware of their emotions. Humans â€Å"have to turn to poetry to interpret life for us, to console us, to sustain us.† (Matthew Arnold, ‘The Study of Poetry’) The purpose of Shakespeare’s Macbeth is not to scientifically understand how ambition can conquer one, nor is it meant to be a historical recount of the real Macbeth. It is a poetic story which is written so as people can empathize with the main characters and view their own life in terms of conquering their faults and sustaining their good. Another purpose of poetry is to represent human nature. This can clearly be seen through any of Robert’s Frost’s poems such as Out, Out which explains, better than any scientific paper ever could, the ability of a child to care so much about his desire to work and help society, and the lack of care his family experiences when he dies. Poetry presents human characteristics, the human thought, the human inner self, all compact into one verse and it is so powerful because when read, one immediately connects with it, and it touches each person’s emotions in a way. Also, it so vividly depicts the nature of humans that it is a powerful tool through which people can express themselves, and in which people can relate to. It expands our knowledge of human nature and the way humans behave and the power of emotions and their effect on us. In Shakespeare’s Macbeth when Lady Macbeth asks the evil spirits to â€Å"unsex me [Lady Macbeth] here† one feels the evil powers of ambition and its ability to overtake ones sane and rational thought. On the other hand science’s purpose is to clearly depict a situation or object. Science, in no way, should aim to â€Å"touch† the reader’s emotional side, but rather touch the reader’s rationality. Although some may argue that science does touch a reader’s side, it is not the main purpose of the writing, and is rather an effect of extreme love towards and passion for the subject. A scientific argument should not be ambiguous or differ from reader to reader, unlike poetry. There is no way for a scientific argument to be true to some people and false to others, for in science there is an absolute truth which the scientists are trying to attain. Although many may argue that poets are also aiming to achieve this absolute truth, it must be noted that each person’s emotions are different and therefore there is no way to absolutely describe the way people think, react or behave. Biology, chemistry and physics have set laws and truths which, regardl ess of who or where you are, will be true. If the purpose of poetry is, as we said, to depict human nature, then the purpose of science is to understand nature itself and how it works. When writing a piece the author must create a balance between ambiguity and precision and the language of a piece is directly dependant on the purpose of the piece. Poetry and science are completely opposite in the way that they try to balance ambiguity and precision. In poetry the ability to ambiguously use words is good since it allows one to think abstractly and allows different readers, with different mindsets, to interpret the piece in different ways. Therefore, in the case of poetry language, as a way of knowing, is created to be ambiguous so as to contribute to the knowledge and effect of the piece. On the other hand, in science ambiguity greatly impedes a work. It is not acceptable for a law or theory in science to be indirect and not addressing one specific point clearly.. Otherwise the law becomes obsolete, since if it is not understandable it has no purpose. There is no space in science for different interpretations of a law; the law has one purpose that it achieves and that purpose is set. It is not different for different people, or different nations, or different cultures. In the sense of multiple meanings, contrary to poetry’s double entendres, scienctific writing cannot have any; the one meaning the author desires to portray must be directly stated so as to disallow ambiguity and interpretation. For example, water being comprised of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom is true independent if one is in the United States, Russia, or Australia. Also, it is true independent of ones age, race, background, nationality, religion, or any other factor which may change from person to person. However, poetry is quite the opposite. Poetry should be, and is, interpreted differently by different people. The meaning or â€Å"truth† behind poetry is fully dependant on all the factors listed above. An old person may have a completely different understanding of words in poems such as George Herbert’s The Pulley the double meaning of the word â€Å"rest† which can either mean the remainder or it can mean peace. The great difference between these two interpretations leaves the reader with the final choice to interpret the poem the way he/she wants and this is the intent of the poet. However, in science it is the intent of the scientist to clearly illustrate his/her point without any ambiguity as in science clarity is essential. In conclusion, it can be seen that poetry and science have completely different purposes and different means of attaining these purposes. Furthermore, each of these specific areas of knowledge means to expand different types of knowledge and pertain to different ways of knowing. However, one must realize that it is essential to have a balance between the â€Å"scientific† or factual knowledge, and the â€Å"poetic†/†aesthetic† knowledge or the emotional understanding of human nature. Therefore, in these terms science successfully expands its portion of human knowledge successfully expands its. Therefore, it can be concluded that each area of knowledge has equal success in expanding knowledge in its respective â€Å"area†. â€Å"In science one tries to tell people, in such a way as to be understood by everyone, something that no one ever knew before. But in poetry it’s the exact opposite.†(P A M Dirac) Do both the approaches suggested in the quotation enjoy equal success in expanding human knowledge?

Monday, July 29, 2019

Literature Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Literature - Essay Example In other stories, particularly children’s books, setting hardly plays any role at all. The setting of three short stories – Ernest Hemingway's  Soldier's Home, Colette's  The Hand  and Katherine Mansfield's  Miss Brill  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ will be discussed in this essay. I will look at the public and private aspects of each setting to show that even when setting is not integral to the plot, it can reveal important truths about the characters.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Soldier's Home, from its very title, alerts us to the setting of the story (Meyer). However, it is not so much the physical positioning of the story that the title refers to as a genuine philosophical question, which can be asked of anyone whose travels irrevocably change them, war or no war: when a person changes, how can their home still be good enough?  The Hand, alternately, is one of those stories mentioned above in which the setting is almost irrelevant, as the action is a lmost entirely internal, externally restricted to the couple's bed. In  Miss Brill, the protagonist focuses on and is enchanted by the setting. The three authors imbue their setting with different levels of importance: the seaside park features as a place of enjoyment in Miss Brill's routine, and her presence there directly causes the climax of the plot.  Krebs' house in  Soldier's Home  exacerbates his feeling of despair without actually causing it; Colette's protagonist remains unaware of her physical surroundings as she focuses exclusively on her new husband's â€Å"monstrous† hand (reference). In each story there is a public setting and a private setting. This essay will define these settings for each story before contrasting the ways in which this literary device is used.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In 1925, Ernest Hemingway published a collection of short stories called  In Our Time, one story of which was  Soldier's Home. This story features Krebs, a young man who returns to America from World War I in 1919, a year after the war has ended and long after other local soldiers have returned home. He â€Å"did not want to leave Germany† (Hemingway), and now feels like an outsider. The public and private dichotomy of settings in  Soldier's Home  is complicated, because Krebs experiences degrees of privacy: in his bedroom, he admits to himself that â€Å"he did not really need a girl†; when on the front porch, he â€Å"liked to look at them† but when in town, â€Å"their appeal to him was not very strong† (Hemingway). In the privacy of his bedroom and the pool room, Krebs can escape the changes and simply  be, thoughtlessly. In the public areas of his house and the local town, he must  come face-to-face with manifestations of  how the war changed him.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the settings beyond his private bedroom, Krebs is unable to handle other pe ople, their needs and personalities. He is unable to participate in a romantic relationship because he â€Å"did not want any consequences† – the German and French girls, possibly prostitutes, with whom he fraternized in Europe characterize â€Å"simple† relationships (Hemingway). This crisis runs so deeply within him that, in the kitchen, he tells his mother that he does not love her, by which he means he cannot love anyone. The war has taken so much of him that he cannot deal with other people.   

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Successful Investment Stocks Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Successful Investment Stocks - Assignment Example There is no comparative comparison of returns between stocks and bonds as returns from stocks outperform those of bonds with significant percentages. This has been proven from studies conducted over a long period of time (Sorkhou 53). Purchasing stocks in a public company give an investor the opportunity to possess fractional ownership of the company. In essence, the investor has the opportunity to share in the success of the company through the share portion held in the company. An increase in the share prices of the company has a positive correlation to the value of the shares held in that particular company as they increase in value. If an investor chooses to sell shares thus held in such a company, the profits accrued will be higher than the purchase price of the shares. Moreover, the dividend payment is an advantage of holding shares in a public company. Although not all companies pay dividends to their shareholders, those that may create more income opportunities for their investors. Additionally, the stocks keep increasing in value, giving the investor a double advantage. Stocks give investors the advantage of diversification, which enables them to spread their risk, and therefore they do not have to put all their investments on the success of a single investment. While considering investing in stocks, laypeople are advised to do so with a highly diversified index fund. The various benefits accrued from a highly diversified index fund make the arrangement more appealing to individual people than going it alone. An index fund gives the group the ability to hire professional investment managers who theoretically offer them with information on the best investment options available. Additionally, there are benefits of economies of scale through cost-sharing among a group of investors.  Ã‚  

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Analyse the ways in which sociologist point to the social nature of Essay

Analyse the ways in which sociologist point to the social nature of living with cancer as a teenager - Essay Example This is the moment that human beings use to plan for their future lives and school life. It is also the most vibrant stage in the human lifecycle because teenagers experience major changes in their bodies and they discover who they are i.e. their personality traits, likes and dislikes. Teenagers are also highly active and interactive thereby developing a large social network. However, this is not always the case with teenagers suffering from cancer. The diagnosis, treatment and management of cancer greatly interfere with the activities of this critical growth stage (Wawsczczyk 2005). According to sociologists this is the stage in life where teenagers learn to be independent from their parents and family members thereby focusing more on their future. However, this is not possible for teenagers suffering from cancer because they need utmost support, attention and care from their parents and family members for emotional, psychological and social support. Therefore, such teenagers are taken a step back from discovering their independence, potential, strengths and weaknesses (Kleinman1988). Also the school life, social life and employment are put on hold for an unknown period of time, which is in contrast to what should be happening in their lives. This is because they become isolated from their peers, adults and school; which is an important social setting for a child’s growth. Cancer treatment is too severe for them to concentrate in school work or find lenient jobs that are conducive to their state of health. It is also quite common for insurance companies to cancel insurance policies for such teenagers because they are not in school. Insurance companies demand that all children still living under the care of their parents should be attending school to enjoy the benefits of the life insurance policies taken by their parents (Wawsczczyk 2005). Various surveys and research conducted by sociologists

Friday, July 26, 2019

Analysis of The Various Legal Provisions Research Paper

Analysis of The Various Legal Provisions - Research Paper Example However, dealing with employment laws is a day to day affair for any business or industrial undertaking irrespective of the size and magnitude of the operations. Hence it becomes very essential that the employers understand and appreciate their legal obligations under the employment laws especially when the employers are keen of making changes in the working place or in the terms of employment of the workers in order to be competitive and efficient.  Ã‚   As a matter of fact, "United Kingdom [UK] employment law has mushroomed in recent years. Modern UK employment law first saw huge changes during the 1970s. Several Acts of Parliament introduced new and complex legislation in areas such as Equal Pay, Sex Discrimination, Race Discrimination, and Health & Safety. Since then there have been even further extensions to UK employment law, particularly brought about by UK's membership of the European Union which required changes to the UK Employment Law. Changes to the UK employment law have included areas such as the Transfer of Undertakings, Disability Discrimination, National Minimum Wages and Working Time Regulations. Year after year UK employment law continues to extend in all areas of working life."   In the UK the main employment legislation is the Employment Rights Act 1996. Labor legislation like the Redundancy Payments Act 1965 in the UK and the Acquired Rights Directive 1977(ARD) concerning the employment regulations of EU are examples of the development of the legal face of the employment legislation. Similarly every year tens of thousands of UK companies fall foul of UK employment law, many due to lack of knowledge of the legal obligations they face. As a result, many face huge compensation and legal costs.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Biology Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Biology - Research Paper Example Therefore the hypothesis is that "Light deprivation during fetal development and infancy affect the brain function during adulthood". Since this experiment cannot be performed on humans, we need to test this hypothesis in rat model for light deprivation. There will be three sets of experiments, viz., 1. Light deprivation of mother during fetal development (pre-natal). 2. Light deprivation after birth (post natal) for 6 weeks. 3. Light deprivation during fetal development and after birth (both pre-natal and post-natal). Pregnant mothers will be either reared in dark. The pups born to these mothers will be either grown in dark (group 3) or normal light cycle, i.e., 12 hours light followed by 12 hours dark (group 1) for six weeks. Alternatively, pregnant mothers will be reared in normal light and the pups born to these mothers will be reared in dark for six weeks (group 2). All other variables like room temperature, humidity, access to food, quality of food and water will remain constant. After six weeks, the animals will be tested for learning behavior, by a T-maze. In a T-maze, the reward (food) can be placed at on e end and the hungry rat is allowed to choose the arm several times. The number of trails it takes the animal to choose the correct arm gives a measure of its learning capability. Atleast 6-8 animals will be tested in each group and the number of trails recorded.

Management Theory and Environmental Forces Essay

Management Theory and Environmental Forces - Essay Example As the discussion highlights  in the 21st century organisational structure is based on the mutual interest of the various members, so that people work together in a coordinated manner. An organisation needs to work effectively and provide significant value to various stakeholders. The value based management approach is created through the vertical chain in an organisation. Moreover, an organisation needs to decide how much the value derives from the each different players of the chain. The evolution of the notion of the value based management in an organisation is implemented, as firms need to acquire various recourses during operational process.  This paper stresses that personal social connectivity within and outside an organisation   is advocated to enhance collaboration along with reducing the cost of coordination activities in order to ensure that operations are conducted effectively with related knowledge and interest. People in an organisation having a common interest du e to similarity in working procedure, area, and operational objectives will naturally assist in building a successful social network in an organisation. Thus, it is important for an organisation to provide the maximum value that it can provide to satisfy the stakeholders, which ultimately helps them to increase its wealth. Values are the health of any organisation and it is not only preferable, but also very much essential for its long term sustainability.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Th Kurig Systm in th Offic Coff Markt Case Study

Th Kurig Systm in th Offic Coff Markt - Case Study Example Having companiÐ µs know thÐ µ fundamÐ µntal importancÐ µ of customÐ µr nÐ µÃ µds is thÐ µ most important part of thÐ µ succÐ µssful company Ð µntÐ µring thÐ µ officÐ µ coffÐ µÃ µ markÐ µt’s sÐ µrvicÐ µ stratÐ µgy, and this will dirÐ µctly add to thÐ µ futurÐ µ succÐ µss and profit. ThÐ µ kÐ µy focus of thÐ µ dynamic company in thÐ µ prÐ µsÐ µnt in tÐ µrms of Ð µstablishing a nichÐ µ in thÐ µ markÐ µting arÐ µa thÐ µsÐ µ days is oftÐ µn thÐ µ supÐ µrior Ð µxpÐ µriÐ µncÐ µ that customÐ µrs havÐ µ, rathÐ µr than thÐ µ supÐ µrior product or sÐ µrvicÐ µ put out by thÐ µ company. This has lÐ µd to thÐ µ thÐ µory that thÐ µ customÐ µr’s basic nÐ µÃ µds should not only bÐ µ mÐ µt, but should bÐ µ Ð µxcÐ µÃ µdÐ µd. An important part of this procÐ µss is having a sÐ µrvicÐ µ profÐ µssional who is ablÐ µ to mÐ µÃ µt and Ð µxcÐ µÃ µd thÐ µir nÐ µÃ µds by giving thÐ µm thÐ µir full attÐ µntion. b. Wha t advicÐ µ do you havÐ µ for Nick Lazaris concÐ µrning his dÐ µalings with MTS†¦ In dÐ µaling with thÐ µ k-cup filling machinÐ µ manufacturÐ µr, thÐ µ pricing goal should bÐ µ sÐ µt at a prÐ µmium lÐ µvÐ µl, so that Ð µxtÐ µrnal changÐ µs in machinÐ µ parts and othÐ µr pricÐ µs do not advÐ µrsÐ µly affÐ µct profits. ThÐ µ pricÐ µ of ingrÐ µdiÐ µnts for a coffÐ µÃ µ would bÐ µ a variablÐ µ, bÐ µcausÐ µ thÐ µ Ð µxtÐ µrnal markÐ µt, howÐ µvÐ µr much KÐ µurig is going to try to control thÐ µ mÐ µans of production and supply chain, is still going to show fluctuations in thÐ µ pricÐ µ of raw matÐ µrials usÐ µd to makÐ µ thÐ µ coffÐ µÃ µ, and thÐ µ machinÐ µ. ... ?r for thÐ µÃ¢â‚¬ ¦ For thÐ µ brÐ µwing machinÐ µs, production vÐ µndors can also bÐ µ outsourcÐ µd, as wÐ µll, saving still morÐ µ timÐ µ, and furthÐ µring industry-widÐ µ goals of providing fastÐ µr, chÐ µapÐ µr, and bÐ µttÐ µr goods and sÐ µrvicÐ µs. In thÐ µ dynamic tÐ µchnology Ð µnvironmÐ µnt, in tÐ µrms of intÐ µrnal strÐ µngths of solution, vÐ µndor support is not complÐ µtÐ µly rÐ µlÐ µgatÐ µd to thÐ µ Ð µffÐ µctivÐ µ automatÐ µd systÐ µm, and in many casÐ µs, vÐ µndors providÐ µ stratÐ µgic dirÐ µction for thÐ µ company, rathÐ µr than Ð µxÐ µcutivÐ µs. d. What actions should KÐ µurig takÐ µ to pÐ µnÐ µtratÐ µ thÐ µ officÐ µ coffÐ µÃ µ sÐ µrvicÐ µ markÐ µt†¦ KÐ µurig should rÐ µly on word of mouth to achiÐ µvÐ µ as much of a cult status in thÐ µ officÐ µ markÐ µt as possiblÐ µ. Cultic organizations usually organizÐ µ amongst thÐ µir local communitiÐ µs in ordÐ µr to garnÐ µr gÐ µnÐ µral community support, but it is important not to blamÐ µ thÐ µ cult Ð µntirÐ µly; victims may havÐ µ morÐ µ choicÐ µs than wÐ µrÐ µ prÐ µviously thought, according to nÐ µw modÐ µls of undÐ µrstanding. Community support can rangÐ µ from garnÐ µring mÐ µdia attÐ µntion to gÐ µtting morÐ µ known about thÐ µ organization through word of mouth. Leadership is also important at Keurig. But it is not just the manager’s job at the coffee and coffee machine company: if they are working as an active listener as well as communicator, they will then be able to make creative decisions based on a framework of team thinking. The basic argument of the current thinking, regarding foundational vision and mission, is for the establishment of new marketing principles that are not based on rigid rule structures, but are instead more able to dynamically respond to an ever-evolving present where the customer is the one who has the power. An overall conclusion that can be drawn from the Keur ig case

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Impact of Financial Markets on Economy, Businesses, and Individuals Assignment - 1

Impact of Financial Markets on Economy, Businesses, and Individuals - Assignment Example Retirees depend highly on the returns of their pension funds. Thus, a fall in stock prices may lead to a loss to a portion of the syndicated investment of the funding in the stock market, reducing the overall return and giving them less purchasing power The federal reserve of the United States is the central bank of the country which facilitates the banking system of the country. It provides services for account maintenance, payment and collection services, circulation currency and transferring funds. For the government it acts as a fiscal agent by honouring treasury check, electronically processing transactions and handling the issuance, transfer and redeem of government securities The board of governors is appointed by the president to serve 14 years of office. Their primary responsibility includes the formulation of the monetary policy, approving the currency circulation limitations and setting cash reserve requirements for the commercial banks (, 2014). The board focuses on developing swift payments system in the country and implementing laws that are related to consumer credit. It sets marginal limits to the use of credit or security purchase and reserves regulatory and supervisory rights over the banking system. The chairman of the Federal Reserve is appointed by this board of governors as well. The chairman of the Federal Reserve is one of the active board members and assumes the role of the head of the central bank. Under his leadership, the board of governors of the Federal Reserve carries out their responsibilities of analyzing, interpreting and regulating the financial system of the country. The chairman is required to report to the congress bi-annually to relate the activities and decisions of the central bank. He maintains contacts with the president’s financial advisory council and other economic officials. The chairman also maintains membership of leading financial institutions internationally like the IMF, BIF etc.  

Monday, July 22, 2019

Seven Ages of a Leader Essay Example for Free

Seven Ages of a Leader Essay Each stages of leadership brings new crises and challenges. Every new leader faces the misperceptions and the personal needs and agendas of those who are to be led. The seven ages of leadership give a clear idea about the different stages of leadership. They are, †¢The Infant Executive †¢The Schoolboy with shining face †¢The Lover ,with a woeful ballad †¢The Bearded Soldier †¢The General, Full of wise saws †¢The statesman, with spectacles Nose †¢The sage, second childishness The initial stage of the leader says that the leader is like a child and he needs others dependency and support. He do everything with the support of others. The next stage is like a school boy with shining face. In that time the leadership experience is an agonizing education like parenting. In the third stage the leader is the lover with a woeful ballad. One mark of the future leaders is the ability to identify. Today’s leaders would instantly recognize the young king’s predicament. New comer or not , almost all leaders find themselves at some point in the position of having to ask others to leave the organization. In the fourth age of the leadership is like the bearded soldier. At the case of over time leaders grow comfortable with the role. This comfort brings more confidence to the leaders In this stage leaders may forget the true impact of their words and actions at that the leader think that there is no need for hearing what the followers said . In this stage the leader acts very strictly and adopt a seriousness character The next age of leadership is like the general with full of wise saws. One of the greatest challenges faced by the leader is that the leader’s career is not simply allowing people to speak the truth but actually being able to hear it. In this stage the leader is with the feature of wise saws. In the fifth stage the leader is like a statesman , with spectacles. The leader in this stage is often hard at work he prepare something for the benefit of the organization. In the last age of leadership the leader is again go to the childishness this is called second stage childishness In this stage the leader acts as a mentor and he really know what he have achieved will not be lost.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Theories of Communicatiion in Health and Social Care

Theories of Communicatiion in Health and Social Care Introduction In the context of health and social care settings, it is very important to have good communication between service users and staff (Gambrill, 2012). As Hepworth et al. (2010) comment, it is vital that care staff develop good communication skills so that they have effective communication with service users and can explain treatment needs to the latter. In addition, care staff must learn professional communication techniques (and know how to apply them) to create a better health care environment (Cournoyer, 2013). There are many different forms of communication, including, for instance, verbal and non-verbal forms. There are also many approaches through which good communication relationships can be fostered (or hampered) and it is imperative, therefore, that care staff learn from best practice so as to ensure that they maximise the potential for the development of a meaningful relationship (Reeves et al., 2011). Good communication and interpersonal skills are, quite simply, essential t o the practice of effective health and social care (Greenhalgh, 2008). Such skills are not merely limited to day-to-day communications with clients. In communicating with others, the practitioner needs to be able to use a variety of strategies to ensure that professional practice meets health and social care needs and facilitates a positive working relationship. Indeed, as Reeves et al. (2010) suggest, there are different approaches for communication and it is imperative that the individual practitioner tailors his or her use of these to the individual needs of the individual patient. Accordingly, expertise, or at least a sound working knowledge of all of the following approaches – humanistic, behavioural, cognitive, psychoanalytical and social (to name but five) – is vital. These theories are, as alluded to, applicable to developing certain techniques in the sector of health and social care. For example, as Gitterman and Germain (2013) comment, humanistic theory is applicable in situations where people are involved in aspects of self-actu alisation, self-conception, self-esteem, honour, and dignity. This approach reflects on the perspective that every human being has the potential to be good, to enjoy life, to contribute positively, and to be a loving and lovable member of society. Thus, as Healy (2014) suggests, this is an approach that aims to maximise critical thinking and analytical optimism. In the health and social care sector, service providers such as doctors, nurses, home care managers, and social workers are, as Ife (2012) contends, offered appropriate training in order to care for service users in the most humanistic manner by implementing or practising modes of communication relevant to the appropriate situation and/or individuals. Theoretical foundations Social theory, as Howe (2009) explains, is the use of theoretical frameworks to study and interpret social phenomena within a particular school of thought. It is an essential tool used by social scientists, and the theory relates to historical debates over the most valid and reliable methodologies that should be used in the analysis and evaluation of needs and how such analysis can be transformed into ‘real-life’ action (Parrott and Madoc-Jones, 2009). Certain social theories attempt to remain strictly scientific, descriptive, or objective, whereas, as Healy (2014) postulates, conflict theories present ostensibly normative positions, and often critique the ideological aspects inherent in conventional, traditional thought. It is important to recognise the differences between such models so as to ensure that the right model is used with the right service user to maximise an understanding of their care needs. At all times, the needs of the client must come first (Hughes, Ba mford and May, 2008). In commenting further upon the individual theories it should be noted that, as Weitz (2009) remarks, cognitive theory is a theory which is recognised to be implemented instantly. Social cognition is, therefore, the encoding, storage, retrieval, and processing of data in the brain (Parrott and Madoc-Jones, 2008). Widely used across psychology and cognitive neuroscience, it is particularly useful when assessing various social abilities and how these can be disrupted by persons suffering from autism and other disorders. Thus, it is clear that the utilisation of this theory in treatment assessment should be tailored to those individual patients who exhibit the systems of the neurological problems noted – and not just used as a ‘catch all’ for all patients (Miles and Mezzich, 2011). It is the requirement of all care settings to accept, follow and implement effective strategies to provide the right source of communication to all the staff, service users and visitors (Krauss and Fussell, 2014). The appropriate and applicable training on verbal techniques must be given to care staff and other professionals. Furthermore, all employees should be made aware of new developments and techniques through further training and educational courses during the course of their employment. This level of career professional development is important because, as Zarconi, Pethtel and Missimi (2008) comment, it is vital to modernise employees’ knowledge and skills to help them to deal with the demands of changing communication and technology, as well as the changing aspirations and demands of clients. For the betterment of any care settings, research always plays a vital role (Bourgeault, Dingwall and de Vries, 2010). There is a number of techniques that have been followed and brought into daily-use in a health care context. These are now considered to be everyday techniques, but when they were introduced they were ground breaking and radical – which shows how keeping abreast of new developments and integrating new techniques into daily working patterns can result in longer term benefits, not just for individual benefits but also the wider profession as a whole (Greenhalgh, 2008). Some of those techniques include the special needs of communication for those with autism, dementia and all of those who have sensual impairment, and it is to such issues that this assignment now turns. The application of relevant theories of communication to health and social care contexts Any health and social care department consists of different types of service users. As a care provider, it is imperative that professionals implement several types of communication techniques through knowledge, experience and skills, as advised by Krauss and Fussell (2014). In accordance with the views proffered by Thompson, Parrott and Nussbaum (2011), who have advanced the cause of using multitudinous approaches to communication, the role of positivism can be seen as critically important. Indeed, many theorists such as Carl Roger, Abraham Maslow, and B.F Skinner, have made life-time studies of how this approach can be beneficial to patient care (Weitz, 2009). In a similar manner, through an evaluation of characteristics based on a humanistic behavioural analysis of actions, people can also be monitored and their health care provision improved, as noted by Burks and Kobus (2012), by treating all people with respect through being gentle and kind. This helps to build mutually benefici al relationships between patient and carer and between different health care professionals. To recognise and understand the behaviour of separate individuals, and to understand how care provision needs to be tailored to meet their individual needs and circumstances, a range of case studies was undertaken by the author. In so doing, cognitive behaviour theory was applied; a summary of the individuals assessed and how their treatment needs were developed is given below. So as to ensure that this assignment conforms to best practice with regards to ethical research, the names of all people have been changed so that there are no personal identifiers. As a consequence, this section of the research not only complies fully with the ethical research protocols of the university but also those advanced by Bourgeault, Dingwall and de Vries (2010). Case Studies Case Study One Estrella is a lady of about 65 years of age. She has been diagnosed with dementia and has lived with this condition for a number of years. She is physically very fit and enjoys walking, making a habit of walking every afternoon after a siesta. Estrella was interviewed at home. The following is a transcription of the interview that took place. It is useful in research to take a transcription because as Speziale, Streubert and Carpenter (2011) contend, it enables the researcher to check facts and return to the data whilst they are analysing and interpreting it. â€Å"Hello Estrella. May I come in please?† I asked. â€Å"Yes, dear, you can come in.† The beaming smile from Estrella suggested that as soon as she saw me she felt happy and she was very welcoming. She showed me into the lounge room and I then asked her â€Å"How was your siesta, Estrella? Did you have a good sleep?† She replied, â€Å"Yes, dear, but I had a weird dream.† Concerned, I questioned, â€Å"What kind of weird dream did you have, Estrella?† â€Å"I just forgot it, dear!† she replied. I asked Estrella kindly and politely if she would like me to help her get changed before she embarked upon her walk. â€Å"Yes, dear, otherwise we will stay here forever,† she answered, whilst looking at me with a sweet smile. In the above situation, as a care worker, I applied humanistic theory. This is shown by my engaging with Estrella in a manner that nourished individual respect. The benefits of this approach are clearly evident through the polite and efficient conversation that took place. The needs of Estrella were quickly identified and, accordingly, a high level of care was delivered. Case Study Two Norah is a 75-year old widow. She has been diagnosed with dementia. If she is awake she tends to stay in her bedroom and, as soon as she is awake, she asks for her breakfast to be brought into her room. From the reading of case notes, which is, as Beresford, Croft and Adshead (2008) suggest, a useful way to gain prior information on a new client, I realised that Norah preferred having her breakfast in her bed and that her breakfast must be warm: neither hot nor cold. I also realised that she likes to have a glass of milk with her breakfast and that she appreciates having the curtains opened so that she can enjoy the outside view. Having already let myself into Norah’s house on the morning of the interview, I asked her, â€Å"May I come in, Norah?†, and explained that I had brought her breakfast in the manner that she likes. She replied, â€Å"Oh, thank you, pet; thats very kind of you. I didnt have to ask for it and you already brought it And it is just the way I like it.† Having deposited the tray on her lap, I opened the curtains. Norah smiled and said, â€Å"Thank you very much, pet.† Once she had finished her breakfast, I took away the tray and let myself out. In this case study it can be seen that, in accordance with the approach advanced by Greenhalgh (2008), cognitive behaviour theory was applied. Norah’s needs were recognised before she had given voice to them. Therefore, in my role as carer, I applied my knowledge and precipitated her needs. Case Study Three Aelfric, a former steelworker, is 78 years old, and has been diagnosed with dementia. He is a very shy patient and finds it very difficult to socialise with other service users. Indeed, such is his shyness that he prefers to stay in his room most of the time, as Aelfric feels that no one likes his company. This, he has suggested, in reflecting upon himself, may be due to his attitude, behaviour and language. Mindful of this plethora of problems, I decided to integrate Aelfric in a bingo day with the rest of the service users once a week. â€Å"Good morning, Aelfric! How was your day?† I asked. He rarely answered, and on this occasion he did not. â€Å"I have good news for you today; have you ever played bingo before?† I queried. Finally Aelfric answered, â€Å"Well, I used to, but am I not the right age to play that kind of game.† I responded, â€Å"Oh! That is wonderful, because I have booked a day out for you to play bingo with the rest of the patients and you are coming as well.† At the beginning, Aelfric did not like the idea of going and being part of the team. As a result, at the start of the bingo session he did not participate and just sat in the corner. However, he later participated and even won a game. As the weeks passed, Aelfric never wanted to miss a week, and began making friends as well. In the case of Aelfric, social theory was applied in accordance with the recommendations advanced by Healy (2014). By the end of several months, Aelfric had become positively friendly with me, which shows how analysing a person using this theory can be beneficial to treatment needs. Case Study Four Minka is a 30-year old lady with learning difficulties and limited speech skills. In the middle of a normal shift, whilst a colleague and I were bathing her, she suddenly started screaming and crying. We did not know what we had done wrong, so I asked her politely, â€Å"What have we done wrong?† Minka seemed to be expressing that the shampoo we had used on her was not nice, and that it smelled bad, and that it had gone into her eyes. Conscious of the discomfort we had caused Minka, I apologised and asked her, â€Å"What shampoo would you like me to use?† Minka pointed to the other shampoo. This shampoo was then applied to her scalp and, as a result, she stopped screaming and let us do our job. When we had finished washing her hair, Minka indicated that she was very happy and asked us to smell her hair. In this case my colleague and I had applied psychoanalytic theory in accordance with the approaches advanced by Weitz (2009). We understood Minka’s needs better as a consequence of so doing. Communication skills in health and social care contexts The Department of Health has, as Thompson, Parrott and Nussbaum (2011) note, been updating all kinds of communication techniques in order to achieve the aims and objectives of the health care sector. Many new technologies have been gradually implemented with the aim of ensuring that the service operates in a professional and effective manner. With regards to the contribution to service users, professionals and staff have been introduced to the latest technologies and have adopted them into their daily working lives in order to ensure that they are following best practice (Sarangi, 2010). This has been achieved through, for instance, the attendance of relevant training sessions and courses which are specifically tailored to update knowledge and skills. As Miles and Mezzich (2011) further observe in commenting more generally upon such improvements to health care, modern equipment and communication aids are being used to monitor the effectiveness of care service provision. It is within this arena that it is vital that professionals use verbal and non-verbal communication techniques to deal with service users and colleagues. It is good practice in the health service to ensure that there is an effective handover between professionals and generally, as Thompson, Parrott and Nussbaum (2011) advise, there is a hand-over during each shift. A hand-over is essential for it updates carers on the progress of service users. A hand-over normally reviews the service user’s health and emotional condition and usually the nurse in charge of the morning shift discusses with the afternoon staff the progress of a client. Training is mandatory in the National Health Service. There are many types of training and staff are encouraged to attend training opportunities as it benefits the health sector and ultimately provides a better service to the clients (Zarconi, Pethtel and Missimi, 2008). Through using such techniques, best practice is filtered down between colleagues which helps raise the overall level of professionalism within the service. An analysis of strategies to support users of health and social care services with specific communication needs In order to allow service users to be fully involved in the decisions made that relate to their individual health care, it follows that effective communication must be used to enable the service users to understand what is proposed for them (Gitterman and Germain, 2013). In order to achieve this aim, and given the comments previously made within this assignment, it is imperative that the health and social care sector develops a range of strategies to meet this need. Every care setting is, as Krauss and Fussell (2014) confirm, required to adopt and implement the strategy of providing the right and proper sources of effective communication to staff. Through the use of verbal and non-verbal techniques, all care professionals and staff are made aware of this and they are also provided with training related to verbal and non-verbal techniques. There are different techniques to support vulnerable people in the health sector, such as reading lenses and voice recognition systems, and Braille . In addition, as Gitterman and Germain (2013) observe, the Picture Exchange Communication System is used as an aid for individuals who suffer from autism. This is an effective system that has now become, as Healy (2014) comments, part of mainstream treatment. An overview of how communication processes are influenced by values and cultural factors As a national health service, the NHS works with a divergent set of people across the nation as a whole. Reflecting upon modern day multicultural Britain, the NHS accordingly needs to be aware of an array of different cultures and sub-cultures within the UK (Greenhalgh, 2008). In addition, the NHS and wider social and health care sectors must be aware of cultural differences, religious tolerance, and language barriers. According to Sarangi (2010), and in line with the values of a tolerant society, everybody should be treated with respect and in accordance with their cultural and ethnic values. Care workers must, therefore, keep in mind cultural, religious, and linguistic differences so as to ensure, as Reamer (2013) notes, that service users do not feel that they have been treated in a way that is disrespectful, for it might lead to the creation of feelings of disappointment and shame. Such emotions would be counter-productive to the establishment of a professional and meaningful cli ent-professional working relationship. For example, a Muslim client may request a halal meal and the hospital or care facility should provide one so that it operates in a manner that is respectful of the needs of the client. Indeed, ensuring that such values are central to patient care may help patient recovery and will further show the patient that his or her individual needs are valued by the service. Whilst, within a British context, English is the main language, there are vast swathes of the population who do not speak the language, do not understand the language, or have no knowledge of the language (Beresford, Croft and Adshead, 2008). Thus, it is essential for the wellbeing of all citizens that English is not the only language in which heath care provision and needs are discussed. There have been major moves forward in this regard over the last thirty years throughout British society, with an increasing number of publications of an official nature being available in different languages. Thus, even the cultural sensitivities of the Welsh and Scottish are now addressed with regard to the publication of information. With reference to health care, service users who either do not speak English or have very little knowledge of it, may find communicating their health care needs difficult, as Beresford, Croft and Adshead (2008) assert. In order to treat such people with respect and d ignity, the health service must continue to act in a proactive way and employ translators so that those who do not speak the language can still have their health needs assessed. This is, Weitz (2009) notes, an arena of increasing importance within the UK as the country becomes evermore multicultural. The Department of Health ensures that when information is provided to clients and service users, leaflets are distributed in different languages. Such provision needs to be expanded so that all who use the NHS feel valued – regardless of the language in which they choose to communicate. Indeed, it has been suggested by Thompson, Parrott and Nussbaum (2011) that all hospitals and surgeries should have a range of translators on call at all times; it is evident that were this provision to be widened to every care home and local authority responsible for the wider social needs of patients, further progress would be made. If such services are not provided, those who do not communicate in English may feel like second-class citizens and this would have a drastic impact on the extent to which the health sector could build a meaningful relationship with such clients; ineffective communication would lead to poor quality services. Policies and procedures are implemented so that different religious and cultural backgrounds, along with differences in socio-economic status, are not reacted to in a negative manner within a health and social care setting. The latter of these, socio-economic status, can often be overlooked but needs to be considered so that no member of the public feels discriminated against in the service that they receive (Weitz, 2009). Existing legislation provides fundamental guidance as to how health and care operatives should work and it is clear, from that legislation, as Ife (2012) notes, that issues of intolerance have no place in modern day social and health care. The same also applies to issues of sexual orientation – the ‘respect’ agenda is, therefore, an important component of daily life in social and health care settings. Existing legislation allows all people to have the right to be offered the facilities that they need to ensure that their health and well-being is maximised by the state and, within an increasingly multicultural society, techniques and strategies of communication have been successfully established to enable all to access the services that they need (Healy, 2014). Complacency is not, however, an option for the service; needs continue to develop on a daily basis and it is imperative therefore that the service as a whole, as well as staff on an individual basis, reflect critically upon their own actions to ensure that they work in a non-discriminatory manner (Burks and Kobus, 2012). How legislation, charters and codes of practice impact on the communication process in health and social care Good practice with regards to communication in the work place is achieved through the adoption of various techniques and methods. As Ife (2012) opines, the Data Protection Act is an important piece of legislation in the workplace and it ensures that personal data is secured and accessed in a controlled and responsible manner. Health care records are, by definition, very personal and many patients have concerns as to how such data is stored. By enforcing rigorous protocols and ensuring, through ongoing training and assessment, that all staff understand the importance of best practice in data protection, such fears can be allayed. It is also worthy of note that clients may also now seek copies of all data held about them. Accordingly, it is vital, as Reamer (2013) maintains, that data recorded about individual patients is always done in a mature and professional manner so as to ensure that no offence is caused. Further, the information contained within such records cannot be disclosed to a third party without the consent of the service user. The Data Protection Act can be seen, therefore, to promote good practice and, as such, helps to ensure that the health sector runs smoothly. Treating somebody as humanely as possible is therefore a fundamental aspect of health and social care and, if privacy and dignity are respected, it follows that the protection of human rights is also achieved (Ife, 2012). Allied to this are issues that relate to freedom of speech, choice and the rights of individual patients; it is clear, as noted within this essay, that by increasing the ability of patients to communicate effectively with health care professionals about their care, ‘patient’ voice is increased. The effectiveness of organisational systems and policies in promoting good practices in communication As Thompson, Parrott and Nussbaum (2011) assert, good practice in communication within health and social care contributes to the efficiency of the service and builds confidence and trust in individuals. This is shown by the fact that staff and professionals are governed by a code of conduct (Hepworth et al., 2010). In addition, the use of computers has revolutionised the National Health Service and, within the confines of this essay, an example of the effectiveness that increased computerisation has brought is described. For example, a case that was reviewed in the unit referred to a gentleman picked up by the police, as he was wandering the streets. This middle-aged man had been shouting and responding to voices in his head and it appeared that he was unwell. The police rang the Mental Health Assessment Unit and asked for more information about the patient, including whether or not he was known to the service. As a result of the computerisation of records, a simple search on the bro wser indicated that he was known and provided details of previous care. This, therefore, allowed paramedics to respond to his needs more quickly because they were aware of his preconditions. Such efficiency within the service would not have been possible with the computerisation of records. However, such systems do bring into question issues of data protection and it is imperative that, as Cournoyer (2013) states, computer records are held in a secure manner and that information is kept confidential, so no third party can access it without the consent of a senior manager. Ways of improving the communication process in a health and social care setting The National Health Service has implemented a system whereby a patients record and daily progress are being saved on RiO. On this system a patients file can be retrieved and updated. In most hospitals, RiO is used and it has proved to be effective (Thompson, Parrott and Nussbaum, 2011). The main drawback of this method is that all staff members – whether junior or senior – have to have access to RiO, creating additional budgetary pressures on training. An individual patients health is monitored on RiO and any staff member can delete information, such as a care plan, from the details stored. This could cause problems if a staff member accidentally deletes something. This again illustrates why increasing training budgets is essential to improve communication processes (Sarangi, 2010). In addition, on some of the wards, the verbal and written commands of staff are very poor. This can be particularly evident where nurses do not have a very solid grasp of English (Krauss and Fussell, 2014). Whilst it is important not to discriminate, there is a need for a robust process of recruitment to ensure that all medical professionals can communicate with each other in a clear manner (Reeves et al., 2011). In order to minimise this problem, staff should only be recruited on the basis of the qualifications that they possess. Indeed, it is now widely argued by academics, including Miles and Mezzich (2011) and Greenhalgh (2008) that a minimum qualification level should apply to all health care professionals – perhaps at a level equivalent to an NVQ level 2 qualification. The National Care Standards Act (2000) makes provisions for the standard of care to be delivered and in so doing sets out 42 standards of care that need to be implemented. Within the documentation there is not much emphasis on the implementation of modern systems of communication that can contribute in the provision of information about the care services as well as service users and staff. So far the standards of care have been monitored on a humanistic basis, but the communication systems need to be improved (Thompson, Parrott and Nussbaum, 2011). This could once again be achieved through further training. In addition the Care Quality Commission has the power to inspect and assess the performance care homes and to make recommendations in areas where an improvement in the level of services being delivered is needed Standard ICT packages to support work in health and social care With continuous progress in the field of information technology and the medical and healthcare sectors, the use of the software packages for dealing with reports such as writing, printing, storing, retrieving, updating, and referring have become very important. Indeed, as Reeves et al. (2011) suggest, computer literacy is a basic requirement for all health care professionals. Older staff and those who may not have benefitted from recent school-based educational opportunities may once more benefit from the availability of tailored courses. Further, as systems develop, there is clear evidence to suggest that all staff should undertake refresher courses, especially with regards to data protection law (Thompson, Parrott and Nussbaum, 2011). Prior to recent IT developments, all patient records were recorded on paper. This was not only cumbersome but made searching for specific records more difficult. Further, the records could only be readily accessed on site. These deficiencies in the pa per-based approach have been rectified by the adoption of multi-layered computer systems, which also enable remote access and the sharing of information between agencies. As Parrott and Madoc-Jones (2008) claim, critical to this revolution in the keeping, making, and recall of paperwork has been the development of both the internet and the intranet. However, this has also brought an array of potential problems, including issues relating to third party access and security. With reference to my own workplace (as a means of providing a practical example), the use of computers has developed to such an extent that it has cut down on all paper work. Daily progress notes are entered on a sophisticated package and day-to-day care of the clients is inputted on the system. Benefits of ICT in health and social care for users of services, care workers, and care organisations If a service user is discharged from the health services and thereafter returns to see his local general practitioner or attend an accident and emergency unit, an advantage of computer-based records is that his details can be retrieved from the system. Such information that was not readily transferrable using paper-based systems helps multi-disciplinary teams achieve continuity of care and, as a result, the client is treated better. In addition, as Parrott and Madoc-Jones (2008) notes, social workers find it easier to go on the internet and find places for service users in different catchment areas quickly. Detailed information about the services offered is displayed and the service user is updated; processing times are quicker – and treatment is again improved. IT also helps with training – both in delivery and record keeping. Indeed, as has been evident through my own experience, most training in mental health trusts is done online. Conclusion This assignment has, through case studies, personal experience, and the assimilation of data from existing studies, provided a thorough overview of a range of communication techniques used in the NHS and associated social care settings. In addition, comment has been made on the individual needs of patients and how these can best be assessed using a range of different theories. Further, the role of ICT has been discussed and examples given as to how its incorporation into health and social care sectors has transformed working practices. Through addressing

Properties and Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles

Properties and Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles AVINASH YALAMANCHILI   History One of the meaning of nanotechnology shows research and invention technology at the macromolecular levels with a length size of roughly 1-100 nm in any measurement. The creation and utilization of structures, gadgets, and frameworks which have hardcover properties because of their tiny size. The unexpected development of nanoparticles along these lines do not come under what we meant. It is assessed that today almost 320 tons per year of nano silver are delivered. Around 120 years back, in 18th century, M. C. Lea who   identified and explained the union of a citrate stabilized silver colloid and from this we come to know that the normal breadth for the particles are in the area around 7 and 9 nm and in addition to that   the adjustment of nano silver using proteins has been described from over 1902 and Other nano silver arrangements were additionally developed in the following years, for instance the gelatin settled silver nano particles were officially   licensed by the name M oudry in 1953.It is hard to note that the innovators who invented the nano silver definitions grasp decades back that the suitability of the innovation required nanoscale silver and to satisfy these rules the silver must be scattered in such a way that the particles of colloidal measure under less than 25 and right now there are numerous items which uses both the silver and silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles have been united into a range of cellulosic materials, for example, filter paper, cotton texture, and cellulose gels. Silver and some other metals have been utilized for some particular length of time to store consumable water, and the antibacterial properties of follow amounts of these metal are well-known. The surface zone of the most part is more famous than the bulk metal and is more bioactive when it is seen as a result. Silver nanoparticles have been utilized already in water filtration applications. Silver nanoparticles will be nanoparticles of silver of between 1 nm and 100 nm in size. Even though we call some as silver some are prepared out of a huge rate of silver oxide because of their vast proportion of surface-to-mass silver iotas. Various states of nanoparticles can be built relying upon the current application and the most commonly use are circular silver nanoparticles yet precious stone, octagonal and thin sheets are known to be popular. The prope rties of silver nanoparticles which are fit to human medicines are under scrutiny in research center and creature thinks about, evaluating potential, ability to work, harmfulness, and other expenses. structure and synthesis In physical procedures, metal nanoparticles are by and large blended by evaporation and condensation, which could be done utilizing a tube heater at climatic weight. The source material inside a watercraft focused at the heater is vaporized into a transporter gas. Nanoparticles of different materials, for example, Au, Pbs and fullerene, have beforehand been created utilizing the vanishing procedure There is developing enthusiasm for using the optical properties of silver nanoparticles as the utilitarian part in various items and sensors. Silver nanoparticles are known to be productive at discarding and scrambling light and, not at all like many colors and shades, have a shading that depend mostly   on the size and the state of the molecule and strong correspondence of the silver nanoparticles with light occurs in light of the way that the conduction electrons on the metal surface experience a total faltering when empowered by light at specific wavelengths Known as a surface plasm on reverberation, this wavering outcomes in unusual solid dispersed amount and control of some   properties. silver nanoparticles can have powerful control cross segments up to ten circumstances bigger than their physical cross area. The strong scattering cross region considers sub 100 nm nanoparticles to be satisfactory with a routine amplifying instrument and when 60 nm silver nanoparticles are l it up with white light they appear as unbelievable blue point source scatters under a diminish field amplifying instrument. The blue shading is relied upon to a SPR that is peaked at a 450nm wavelength. A property of roundabout silver nanoparticles is that this SPR best wavelength can be changed from 400 nm to 530 nm by changing the particle assess and the area refractive rundown near the atom surface. Substantially greater developments of the SPR peak wavelength out into the infrared area of the electromagnetic range can be expert by conveying silver nanoparticles with the plate shapes Characterization electron magnifying lens was mostly utilized to choose the size, shape and the dispersion of size   of the silver nanoparticles. Setting up of tests are done by setting a drop of working arrangement and that are over a carbon-covered standard copper framework working at 80 kV. FT-IR examinations were completed on a Bruker Equinox 55 Spectro photometer. Silver solution was inspected as In order to prepare the silver-nanoparticles ,the things which were used are known to be   AgNO3   arrangement and CTAB, separately, as a metal salt antecedent and a balancing out operator. Aniline arrangement was additionally utilized as a diminishing operator. The straightforward dull response blend containing AgNO3 + CTAB was changed over to the trademark light yellow shading after the expansion of a required arrangement of aniline. The presence of shading was clearly identified as the development of silver nanoparticles. Transmission regular by customary technique like under some specific circ umstances by using a thin kbr pellet. The physicochemical properties of nanoparticles are critical for their conduct, bio-dispersion, security, and adequacy. In this manner, portrayal of ag nanoparticles are essential so as to assess the useful parts of the integrated particles. Portrayal is performed utilizing an assortment of logical methods and in which includes UV-vis spectroscopy, X-beam diffractometry, Fourier change infrared spectroscopy, X-beam photoelectron spectroscope, dynamic light disseminating , checking electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy , and nuclear drive microscopy . A few eligible books and surveys have clearly exhibited the standards and using of different sorts of explanatory strategies for the portrayal of Ag nanoparticles; like in such a way as, the nuts and bolts  Ã‚   of the essential systems utilized for the portrayal of Ag nanoparticles are in a situation that they are   beneath for simplicity of of their capability. For instance, portrayal of Ag nanoparticles utilizing d ifferent systematic procedures arranged from culture crystallizing of Bacillus species and UV-Vis spectroscopy is the most critical method and the least complex approach to affirm the development of nanoparticles. This is how the silver nanomaterial characterization looks like from various techniques Mechanical properties: A standout amongst the most widely recognized systems of silver nanoparticles antibacterial movement mostly depends on their basic partiality for holding that is available in cysteine, which is called a building piece of the protein bacterial cell divider and so the enzymatic capacity of proteins are offensive and the chain of cell breath is interfered. In the meantime some different compounds and dehydrogenase are crushed. It has been assessed that silver nanoparticles are more powerful against Gram-negative microorganisms, which is identified with contrasts in the development of cell dividers of both gatherings of microscopic organisms. Advantages and disadvantages: These are used in conductive Coatings as Silver nanowires can be utilized to give conductive coatings to straightforward conduits and adaptable gadgets and also used as Plasmonic Antennas in such a way as Metallic nanoparticles connected to silver nanowires work as reception apparatuses improving plasmonic action for detecting and imaging applications   and coming to Sub-atomic Sensing, these are Single layers of silver nanowires have been utilized to build exhibits for particle particular detecting in conjunction with Raman Spectroscopy. Silver nanoparticles have been utilized broadly as hostile to bacterial specialists in the wellbeing business, nourishment stockpiling, also used in material coatings for different metals and various ecological applications. It is vital to note that notwithstanding of many years of utilization, the proof of presence of poisonous quality of silver is still uncertain. Items made with ag nano particles have been endorsed by a scope of authorize bodies. The danger of using nanoparticles of silver to people is for the most part low and in the most cases very low and also it can be seen if enough care is not taken. Skin contact with materials containing silver is one of the fundamental ways individuals are presented to silver nanoparticles . At the point when all is said in done, buyer things release simply little measures of silver, not realizing important prosperity impacts. Nano particles are known to be devoured by the skin. Broken skin, or skin with cuts and wounds, may offer climb to less complex and facilitate absorption of nanoparticles into the circulatory framework and translocation in the body Uses: Silver Nano particles have applications in finding out and treatment of cancer and are medication transporters which are very useful, which are utilized as a part of eye watch over which covers contact lenses. likewise, the utilization of silver nanomaterials in mix with vanadium oxide in battery cell segments is one case of cutting edge silver nanotechnology which also deals in battery execution in cutting edge dynamic implantable therapeutic gadgets. Silver nanoparticles also used in dental instruments and gauzes very much. Furthermore, joining nanoparticles in endodontic filling materials gave a fundamentally improved hostile to bactericidal and dental glues are likewise exceptionally powerful against streptococci without any influence on the glue mechanical properties, accordingly empowering their utilization in orthodontic medicines. Environmental effects: Silver nanomaterials, for instance, can disintegrate to shape silver particles in a particular arrangement and these are viewed and believed to be as nontoxic to people at sensible fixations however can influence the development of fish incipient organisms. The development of ionic silver is not just reliant or depend on the built properties of the nanomaterial but they are also even when it comes to size and shape and in addition to that subject to changes from ecological introduction. The utilization of antibacterial silver nanomaterials in items like toys or any types of materials   made people worried about that like as they may have some poisonous nature that may effect skin or like by smell. Especially materials like nanoparticles may look extreme dangerous and this is because of their nature. On the other side the techniques and the modifications done to them which affect their natural behavior but it also helps in holding their properties of antibacterial techniques. In water treatment plants these nano silver particles were found in sewage slime,and in which it shows that   these particles must enter the water framework. But in any of these cases anyway they are not clear. A number of particles may connect in the soil and they may dissolve in the soil and some may not and in some cases, these particles may have the chance to stay in surface water and after that they may consume by the living organisms or it may slowly dissolve in it. References: Li, W. R; Xie, X. B.; ..Shi, Q. S.;, Zeng.., H. Y.;, Ou-Yang, Y. S.; Chen, Y B. Appl Microbiol.. Biot.echnol. 2010, 85(4), 1115-22. Korbekandi H, Iravani S. Silver nanoparticles, the delivery of nanoparticles. In: Hashim Abbass A., editor, ISBN: 978-953-51-0615-9, InTech; 2012. C. Krish.naraj, E.G. Jaga.n, S. Rajase.kar Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acalypha indica leaf extracts and its antibacterial activity against water borne pathogens M. Gondwal, G.J.N. Pant Biological evaluation and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Calotropis procera Hussain SM, Hess KL, Gearhart JM, Geiss KT, Schlager JJ. In vitro toxicity of   the silver nano particles   in BRL 3A rat liver. cells. Toxicol In Vitro