Wednesday, April 3, 2019

Constructability And The Safe Design Principles Construction Essay

Constructability And The unattackable object Principles formula EssayConstructability untroubled program Principles operates as a preliminary process to fork over Parsons Engineers, and the Construction Management Engineers an easy methodological analysis to discern constructability issues infers that ar likely to educate in the erection process and volunteer reasonable construct features to winnow out potential peril in the contrive phase of the Arabian transmission channel disgorge al-Qaida. The process go aways hard-nosed in orderion to Parsons Design Engineers to assist them in identifying constructability issues accidents of equipment and systems used in the tress of the Arabian provide device Infrastructure. It offers realizable principles that foundation be employ to discover additional constructability issues encounters found on the urinateing commit, in structural components, and from materials, processes, and social occasions employed d uring manifestation and charge. This process is for create the skills of Parsons Engineers to control many another(prenominal) kinds of constructability issues dissembles at the time of excogitation or forrader work begins on site to hand optimal constructability and base hit throughout the aspect process and the carriage cycle of the Arabian Canal Project Infrastructure.International studies progress to concluded that approximately sixty (60%) percent of either fatal accidents in facial expression arise from faulty fig or insufficient planning. While the exact percentage remains the subject of disputation and discussion, a routine of this magnitude ch tout ensemble(a)enges those who manage the process of stick out to fulfill lives and money simply by application of improved engineering practices. such perspective should be a revelation to Parsons Engineers who are accustomed to encounter the major(ip)ity of accidents in the device industry as attributable to the phone turning chaos of the look site. To do so would center more on pr in timetion than ever out front. The objective of this process is to develop and/or go engineering principles of constructability pencil eraser(p)r construct for twisting and the manner cycle of the Arabian Canal Project Infrastructure. To discover this task we shall draw from four pioneering approaches to constructability securer concept. These approaches which form the tail of modern system arctic engineering principles are the following forefend the hazard if affirmable, orProvide guarding to prevent contact with the hazard, andProvide refuge factors to minimize the hazard, andProvide redundancy to confine the hazard.All four applications needs involve highly tensioned Parsons Engineers. Though these principles have been extended, there is nonetheless no methodology to simplify these principles and incorporate them into a simple methodology. go away of the process develops methodo logy for identifying constructability issues hazards then matching the issue or hazard with picture features and/or caoutchouc appliances for the prevention of the hazard. This give highlight the usance of the Parsons Engineer as a designer. When the Parsons Engineer places strain on constructability hazard prevention by designing out the hazards inherent to social system processes, increases, or facilities, the circumstances that produce construction interferences injuries exit be drastically winced.The sulfur section provides the Parsons Engineer with a system for identifying hazards with an insight into the nature of hazards and focussing that categorizes the hazards into manageable groups. Specific identification of the different types of hazards in the design item streamlines the hazard elimination process by providing guidelines to determine general control measures. This process provide provide Parsons Engineers with easy principles of system safety universa l to design and constructability that tick for the elimination and control of hazards. Then it depart provide a method to quantify the ability of design improvements to prevent injury, death, and wrong in terms of reliability.For instance, before a construction discover even begins, the construction motorbus faces the potential constructability issues and hazards of faulty design by the architect, speckive design of the equipment that must be used, and hazards within the construction site or property. To mastery to the full control constructability issues and hazards during the project, these obstacles and hazards must be identified and addressed during design and planning stages. This process distills system safety methodology into five principles that focus on hazard identification, isolation, and control through constructability, innovative technology and applied science. A design matrix provides a check sheet to chequer potential loss exposures have been identified and controlled before the design has left(a) the drafting room. Practical application of this method eliminates or controls potential constructability issues and hazards.In a world of exponential increases in technology, Parsons Engineers have novel and elicit options available to them. Parsons Engineers who can think outside the box allow for produce many opportunities to re-engineer increases use new materials and informational devices in a way that produces a constructible and safer product or process.Constructability condomty In-Design Compliance purposeEngineering surgical incision Procedure Constructability Safety In-Design Compliance ProgramParsons Constructability Safety-in-Design (CSID) program is an ongoing writ of execution and hitch effort relating to a projects safety requirements. Parsons CSID approach evaluates and resolves hazard abstract relating to the mitigation of force out and public hazards in a quick-wittednesss construction and operation, bail b ond to mandate requirements, and beneficial safe design practices.The Parsons CSID process begins with implementing the Constructability Safety-In-Design Compliance Procedure and supported by the Parsons Constructability Safety In Design Process Guide. The Parsons comp Constructability Design for Safety Training Process ensures the project staff to the full comprehends the CSID processes and continually works to ensure complete implementation.The CSID review committee go away be tasked with completing the Constructability reviews. The Parsons Constructability review is a review of the plans and specialisedations to check for build ability and urge on ability. When reviewing for build ability, Parsons checks for the completeness of the drawings. This let ins a cross-check among the respective(a) disciplines (electrical, mechanized, architectural, structural, plumbing, civil, and landscaping, etc.) to coordinate pipeline sizes locations, power capacities, road and bridge layout and sizing, and another(prenominal) major components that are essential to build the infrastructure. Additionally, there may be dimensional errors in calculating radius building plots that impact structural steel, site concrete, light bollards, and landscape. minute dimensions are reviewed to prevent building delays, bidding errors and to ensure the complete project is capable of being under written for insurability. When checking for bid ability, Parsons Constructability Review Team performs an extensive review of features, notes, sections, elevations, site plans and detailations. As in any contract, the best contract is without ambiguity, error, conflict, and leaves little to interpretation. This review crosschecks the use of detail references and confirms consistent use of building finishes to specifications and other plan details. The work product of the review is a list of discovers and a marked-up set of the plans and specifications to be reviewed by the project stake holders. The list of comments is created using the Parsons Constructability Assessment archives so the list can be modified and prior(prenominal)itized by other aggroup members. (It in addition serves as a checklist to confirm the incorporation of the comments to the catalogues before going to bid.)A standard procedure to mark-up the drawings with mixed bags is established. For example, green frame pass on be used to highlight question areas, orange pen will be used if the question is answered as the review continues, blue pen will be used to make turnions, and yellow pen to swear the information was input signal into the Constructability Assessment Register. Using this standard mark-up policy, the constructability team can clearly show all stake holders the process of how separately comment was generated. Additionally, the incorporation of a change is easier to compare the marked-up sheet to the alert design.After the plans and specifications have been marked-up, each comment will be input into the Parsons Initial Hazard Evaluation Register. The process of inputting the information is not but a clerical process, but also a final transgress of the plans and specifications. Often additional comments are generated or questions are answered. Once the comments are inputted, the Parsons Constructability Review Team will prepare a narrative explaining the format of the comments and the general outcome of the review. The constructability report (the narratives and comments) will be forwarded to the stakeholders and a confluence scheduled to review the comments.The opportunities to create safer workplaces are most cost effectual when captured in the earliest phases of the lifecycle of designed products or processes. The most effective assay of infection control measure eliminating the hazard is often cheaper and more practical to come upon at the design or planning stage, rather than making changes posterior in the lifecycle when the hazard s become real risks to knobs, users, employees and businesses. The constructability review will ensure the realized project is insurable, sheer bidders questions, increase the likelihood of competitive bids, reduce RFIs, and change orders and delays during the bid and construction process. It is much easier and less costly to make the changes to the plans and specifications prior to bid, rather than during construction.A constructible safe design approach results in many benefits, includingPrevention of injury and disease,Improved use ability of products, systems and facilities,Improved productivity reduced cost,Better prediction and management of production and operational costs over the lifecycle of a product,Compliance with legislation,Innovation, in that constructible safe design demands new thinkingReducing over all projectIncrease construction practicality,Eliminates errors and ensures project schedule completion in a timely moodProvides the owner and all stakeholders to have the opportunity to ensure the design is fully acceptable to their standards and expectationsAddress the life cycle environmental impacts and improves the over all preservation of re fountsReduces the life cycle expenses associated with operations and maintenanceThe lifecycle of a product is a expose concept of sustainable and constructible safe design that provides a framework for eliminating the hazards and improving the constructability at the design stage and/or dictatorial the risk as the infrastructure is constructed, installed, commissioned, used or operated, maintained, mendinged, modified, de-commissioned, demolished and/or dismantled, and disposed of or recycled.The Parsons CSID is a tool to assist designers, engineers, detergent builders, clients and other mark stakeholders to come together to reduce construction, maintenance, repair and demolition safety risks associated with design. Parsons CSID recognizes that a design involves key considerations such as op erability, aesthetics and economics with the elements of safety. It also acknowledges that a design process may be determined by many different stakeholders and/or influences. The CSID methodology aims to involve these elements and influences. By proactively considering construction, maintenance, repair and demolition issues, the CSID framework should not only help reduce the number of construction industry incidents, but also assist in improving constructability and reducing the life cycle costs associated with building the infrastructure design project.There is a balance of responsibilities between a designer, a constructor and other relevant stakeholders, such as clients or specialist consultants. It is main(prenominal) that all participants highlight unusual safety risks associated with a design and needed construction.As outlined in the Parsons CSID process all those involved shouldidentify the hazards presented by potential design solutions and consider the risks these hazar ds will generate for construction workers and others who may be affected by the construction work (e.g. members of the public)include health and safety considerations amongst the design options so that they can avoid the hazards, reduce their impact or introduce control measures to protect those at risk where it is re a s o n a b l y practicableforewarn the contractor of the residual hazards that have been identified within the design and will need to be managed during the construction work. Eliminating the hazard is the first risk control that should obviously be considered. If the hazard cannot be eliminated (for example eliminating risks associated with maintenance by using aluminum/ spotless steel, which requires no regular painting), risk can be minimized by using a series of timbres known as the hierarchy of risk control. Includingsubstituting the system of work or limit with something safer (e.g. pre-assembled equipment at ground level rather than height)modifying the syst em of work or plant to make it safer (e.g. ensure attachment proves for lifting, window cleaning, safety lines, etc.)isolating the hazard (e.g. introduce restricted areas)introducing engineering controls (e.g. prevent falls from buildings during construction/maintenance by increasing wall/edge height).Only when the above constructible and risk control options have been exhausted should consideration (and more importantly reliance) be given to personal protective equipment (e.g. safety harnesses) or adopting administrative controls such as hazard warning signs. Design is the process of considering options. In ontogenesis and understanding these options, there is also the ability to improve safety and reduce costs. For example, the costs associated with assembling prominent scale scaffolding may far exceed the costs associated with alternate design and/or construction materials. Similarly, an emphasis placed on achieving a design that would be safe and in force(p) to erect, rather than the traditional approach of minimizing steel tonnage, did result in turn down project costs. Essentially, given the opportunity to consider the design in a formal and systematic way, a smarter design results and a smarter design eer leads to a safer design.The following subjects are included in this program forcefulness office life safetySafe facility startupSafe facility shutdownIntrinsically safe designsStructural integrity (e.g., seismic, wind, safe loading, equipment support, etc.)Considerations for in operation(p) a facility safelyParsons defines project safety requirements as knowledgeable or external (Employer) specification, government code, manual, policy, standard, and safe practice that pertains to providing safe and hygienic facilities for personnel.The Standard Industry Codes and Standards (or publishers of basic codes and standards), which pertain to safe design practices, will be utilized by the Parsons Design team. The project design team will also includ e requirements of the Development project objectives and goals, the requirements of Dubai Municipality and its agencies, and other specific Employer requirements or best practices.The Project Manager and Design Manager will be responsible for coordinating and confirming the special constructability and safety requirements for the design elements for the project work. The Project Manager and Design Manager together with the QA/QC manager will verify the appropriate reviews have been performed related to Constructability Safety In Design. The Design Manager will be responsible for establishing the Employer requirements checklists, which include protective industry codes/and standards and local/city code requirements. The Design Manager will also direct and coordinate the work of engineers and designers assigned to the project accomplish the Constructability Safety In Design objectives and requirements.PurposeThis procedure describes Engineering section policy for application of th e Constructability Safety-In-Design (CSID) Compliance Program. Engineering/design practices and principles contained in this document are intended generally to be applied to all types of facilities during each projects planning and design phase.Constructible Safe design practices commit on the correct use of current basic code requirements, existing design standards, client requirements, and any other known safety considerations that assist in safeguarding against grievous check offs and help manage unsafe materials and hazardous acts cause illness or bodily harm to workers. Enhances building information modeling and enables design success related to sustainability, security, design-build, risk management, hazard mitigation, insurability and performance-based design.Promotes team building among client, designer and contractor, accentuate the success of the project instead of the success of the individual, thereby minimizing the commoditization of engineering.Provides ongoing feedback from clients, users, and contractors to the design team, eliminating scope surprises.Reduces total project costs and engineering scope creep, improving profitability.Involves construction expertise in the design phase, identifying field issues and avoiding obstacles, unnecessary construction costs, and lawsuits.Improves the quality of construction documents, minimizing change orders and subsequent post-construction claims.Improves the quality of the next design, incorporating feedback from the field. externalise Constructability Logic DiagramDefinitionsSafetyAs a noun safety shall be understood to mean the condition of being safe from (or causing) harm, injury, or loss.As a verb safety shall be understood to mean protection against failure, breakage, or accident.Constructability Safety In-Design ProgramParsons CSID compliance program is an ongoing implementation and confirmation effort relating to a projects constructability safety requirements. Also included are hazard psycho digest resolutions relating to the mitigation of personnel hazards in a facilitys operation, adherence to code requirements, and safe design practices beneficial to personnel.The following subjects are included in this program. staff office life safetySafe facility startupSafe facility shutdownIntrinsically safe designsStructural integrity (e.g., seismic, wind, safe loading, equipment support, etc.)Considerations for operating a facility safelyOwner/operation procedure supplementOperating sufficiency/redundancyEconomic design alleviate of maintenanceEnvironmental complianceConstruction safetyFailure analysis (except for life safety systems)Supplier product/safety responsibilitiesSafety and Personnel Hazards ordinary safety and personnel hazards in operating facilities include, but are not limited toFiresExplosionsFallsTripping and clearance deficienciesStructural abasement and improperly supported elementsElectrical shockChemical burns and fumesSuffocationExcessive sound levels drop of, and/or exposure to, deadly construction materials (e.g., urethane and asbestos)Toxic materials discoursePotable water contamination (e.g., sanitary sewer/process sewer)Radiation nuclearMagnetic fieldsUse of microwavesInadequate lighting (eyestrain and darkness)Ergonomic deficiencies (e.g., carpal tunnel syndrome and muscular strain)Materials handling (e.g., overheads, conveyors) base machinery parts (e.g. guards, over speed, vibration, emergency stop/lockout)Hazardous spillsMoving objects (obstructed vision)Inadequacy of alarms/communication systemsUnanticipated structural loading (e.g. large number of people on platforms)Hazard AnalysisA hazard analysis is generally intended to identify and examine hazards during all phases of design, construction, and operations, as relevant to the requirements of each project. This analysis includes hazards and operability (HAZOP) studies, what-if evaluations, failure mode and effects analyses (FMEA), and event-tree and fault- tree analyses. Hazard analysis is not a function of the Engineering Department but is handled by others. On some projects, hazard analysis is performed by the client.Constructability Safety SystemsTypical Constructability safety systems include, but are not limited to, the following tercet categories.Monitoring SystemsFire and smoke detection alarmsToxic material sensors and alarmsCritical sampling systemsConstructability Safety Device Systems (permanent and in-place)Safe electrical voltages near personnelExplosive protectionProtective material coveringsAdequate exiting and door ironwareShieldingFall protectionLadder clearances and cagesStair handrails, platform handrails, and walk platesOperability of valvesMachinery guardsSafety color codingSignage exigency stop switchesEquipment-keyed lockout switchesEmergency rampart Systems (activated by an incident)Eyewash and safety-shower stationsEmergency/exit lightingEmergency communicationsEmergency alarmsFire sprinklersEmergency e xit facilitation devices (e.g., slides)Electrical traffic circle protection (e.g., circuit breakers and fuses)Constructability Safety In-Design Process GuideConstructability and Safe Design ConceptsSpecific aims and goals in the beginning of this process address the theories and methodology of constructability, hazard identification and the development of design features to eliminate the obstacles and hazard and/or minimize the probability of constructability and injury or damage failure mode. Constructability and safety engineering should include the process of systematically controlling constructability issues and hazards through design considerations or with the use of safety appliances.Principle One Definition of a Hazard and ConstructabilityTo begin to address constructability safer design principles in construction and the life of the Arabian Canal Project Infrastructure, one must first understand the actual nature of constructability and hazards. A specific definition of c onstructability and hazards provides the Parsons Engineer with a basis to develop a methodology for planning and evaluating the construction and the life cycle of the Arabian Canal Project Infrastructure process for constructability and safety ensuring for design of constructible, safe systems and equipment. The undertaking of such construction design principles leads to safe operation of a completed facility.What a hazard is in practical termsDefinition A hazard is an unsafe physical condition that is always in one of three modes- Dormant/Latent (unable to go harm), Armed (can exertion harm), Active (causing injury, death, and/or damage by psychotherapeutic unwanted energy, substances, biological agents, and or defective computations from computer software.In greater detail, a dormant/latent hazard is a design defect that is susceptible to a failure mode. Foreseeable misuse should also be considered (a kitchen hot seat may be used to stand on to occur upper cabinets and needs to be sturdy enough to prevent collapse.)The build up hazard is created by a change of circumstances and is ready to cause harm (the chair may have a big snarl on one leg). The active hazard is an armed hazard triggered into perform (when the chair is stepped on the knot cannot support the additional load and the chair leg collapses, causing a fall.)Definition Constructability is the optimum use of construction knowledge and experience in planning, design, and procurement and field operations to achieve the overall project objectives.The basis of constructability concept is that experienced construction personnel need to be involved with the project from the earliest stages to ensure that the construction focus and their experience can properly influence the owners, planners, and designers, as sanitary as material suppliers. This does not necessarily mean that the design or project objectives should be changed to meet constructability only from a cost standpoint. Constructabilit y should be used as a design consideration, so that optimum results provide the best of both worlds.Parsons approach to the Arabian Canal Project Infrastructure Design will emphasize constructability with various characteristics and be implemented as design progresses.Parsons Design and construction managers are committed to the cost posture of the whole project. They recognize the high cost influence of early project decisions.Parsons managers use constructability as a major tool in see project objectives concerning quality, cost and schedules.Parsons managers bring construction aboard early. This means using experienced personnel who have a full understanding of how a project is planned and built.Parsons Designers are receptive to improving constructability. They think constructability, point construction input freely, and evaluate that input objectively.Early constructability efforts result in a significant payback to the project. Industry research has cited cost reductions of between 6 and 23 percent, benefit/cost ratios of up to 101, and large schedule reductions. The intangible benefits are as important as the numerical benefits and must be recognized accordingly. These include more accurate schedules, change magnitude productivity, improved sequence of construction, enhanced quality, decreased maintenance, and a safer job.Parsons will provide input to the planning and design from the standpoint of project intent, constructability, safety, operation and maintenance. This will be accomplished through field reconnaissance with designers and reviews of design documents at various stages of development. Obtaining feedback from maintenance personnel at this point is very important, since they finally live with the finished product and are aware of previous construction deficiencies. The reviews will be scheduled during both the Conceptual Development and the Design phases.Principle Two Establish a Standard of Constructability and Safe DesignConstructabi lity and Safety must be converted into a powerful design priority and overriding planning concern to be effective. It must rely primarily on the physical elimination of each construction obstacle and hazard, rather than upon human performance, which is variable and cannot be programmed, to avoid the obstacle or hazard. Through the evaluation and close scrutiny of each activity, task or phase of the construction process we are able to identify possible failure modes to identify hazardous conditions.A well-known tenet of safety engineering states Any hazard that has the potential for serious injury or death is always unreasonable and always unacceptable if reasonable design features and/or the use of safety appliances are available to prevent the hazard. The key to successful safety engineering is to identify and design out as many hazards as possible. When this tenet is applied as a design standard, it becomes a routine expectation to design out hazards, thus changing a dangerous fa cility, product or service into a safer one.The identification of construction obstacles and hazards is the basic building block to ensure for a safe construction and operation during the life cycle of the Arabian Canal Project Infrastructure. Often the like construction obstacle or hazard that has been causing injury, damage, or down time surfaces uncontrolled on multiple occasions. fall loads due to two blocking were recurring hazards on construction sites for many years. This trend stopped when anti-two blocking devices were installed by manufacturers on all new cranes and retrofitted onto most cranes in the field. By relying on our past experiences, remembering backwards is not all that difficult to begin to control construction obstacles and hazards.Principle Three Categorizing the HazardHazard SourceThe third step in hazard identification is to determine which of the following seven categories contains the source of the hazardHazard SourceNatural EnvironmentStructural/ mech anisedElectricalChemicalRadiant EnergyBiologicalAutomated Systems conventionalized IntelligenceNow the hazard can be binned into a well-provided box or boxes. Each of these boxes contains just a few examples that serve as a starting point for the Parsons Engineer to begin to focus on the nature of the hazard.These topics are meant to be a starting point to develop additional listings for failure modes. It is important to note that hazard categories may overlap or fall into one or more groups. It is common to encounter a hazard that contains simultaneous natural, mechanical, and chemical properties. In these cases, specific hazards should be broken down into as many individual properties as possible.Natural EnvironmentThe first box is our natural environment. The laws of gravity cannot be repealed, nor can the weather be programmed or the ocean drained. The following are a few hazard source possibilities that the Parsons Engineer must get out with in the natural environment.Natura l EnvironmentGravityFalls same levelFall from elevationFalling objectsImpactAccelerationSlopes flurryRolloverSlidingUnstable surfacesWaterFloatingSinkingDrowningAtmosphere alternate in AltitudeHumidityWindVisibility (fog, etc.)DustTemperatureLimitations on Human PerformanceStructural/Mechanical HazardsThe second box delineates mechanical hazards. As engineers we must consider their mechanical advantage, but also their possible danger.Structural/Mechanical HazardsSurfacesLack of TractionUnstable SurfacesTripping rampStepsLaddersLeverRotationWheelsGearsPulleyScrewAugerCams

No comments:

Post a Comment