Saturday, March 9, 2019
Education in Nigeria Essay
nurture in Nigeria is overseen by the Ministry of pedagogy. And the local anesthetic authorities take responsibility for implementing policy for separate-controlled public study and state tutors at a regional level. The raising organisation is sh ard into Kindergarten, primary fosterage, utility(prenominal) education and tertiary education. old education Primary education, Yoruba, and Igbo. Private schools would also offer Computer science, French, and Fine Arts. Primary school students atomic list 18 required to take a Common submission scrutiny to qualify for admission into the matter and realm politics Secondary schools, as well as esoteric ones.The Universal Basic upbringing, UBE, came as a replacement for Nigerias Universal Primary genteelness scheme of the 6-3-3-4 system of primary education. The 9-3-4 system of education was designed in con rowity with the MDGs and Education For All, EFA (Kayode, 2006). The UBE involves 6 days of Primary School education and 3 age of Junior Secondary School education, culminating in 9 years of unbroken schooling, and transition from one class to an other is automatic provided dogged by continuous assessment.This scheme is monitored by the Universal Basic Education Commission, UBEC, and has made it free, compulsory and a right of every child. 1 Therefore, the UBEC faithfulness section 15 defines UBE as early childhood c be and education. The rectitude stipulates a 9-year formal schooling, adult literacy and non-formal education, skill acquisition programs and the education of particular(a) groups such as nomads and migrants, girl child and women, Al-majiri, street children and disabled tidy sum (Aderinoye, 2007). 2 Secondary education.Students discharge sextet years in Secondary School, that is 3 years of JSS (Junior Secondary School), and 3 years of SSS ( elderberry bush Secondary School). By Senior Secondary School Class 2 (SS2), students are fetching the GCE O take aims exam, which is not mandatory, but most students take it to prepare for the Senior Secondary Certificate trial run. The Senior Secondary School Exam is interpreted in the last year of lower-ranking school (SS3). Private organizations, the distinguish government or the federal official government manage secondary schools in Nigeria.The Federal Republic of Nigeria is made up of thirty-six States and the Federal cracking Territory. There are about two Federal governing body Colleges in each state. These schools are funded and managed studyly by the Federal authorities through the Ministry of Education. Teachers and staff are Federal Government employees. Teachers at the Federal Government schools possess a Bachelors degree in Education or in a particular subject compass, such as, Mathematics, Physics etc.These schools are supposed to be model schools carrying and maintaining the ideals of secondary education for Nigerian students. assenting is based on merit, determined by the National Common Entrance Examination taken by all final year unsubdivided school pupils. Tuition and fees are very low gear, approximately sixteen guanine naira ($100), because funding comes from the Federal Government. 2 State- prolong secondary schools are funded by each state government and are not comparable to the Federal government colleges.Although education is supposed to be free in the majority of the state owned institutions, students are required to purchase books, uniforms and pay for miscellaneous things costing them an median(a) of thirty thousand naira ($200) in an academic year. Teachers in State-owned institutions usually have a National Certificate of Education or a Bachelors Degree, but this is not always the case as many secondary schools in Nigeria are filled with un dependent teachers who end up not creation able to motivate the students. Often these schools are understaffed due to low state budgets, lack of incentives and irregularities in payment of staff salar ies.2 Some state-owned secondary schools are regarded as elite colleges because of the historically high educational measure and producing alumni who have prominent citizens in the various careers. These included Kings College, Lagos and Queens College, Lagos. However, the college ranking of these institutions have since dropped because of the arrival of nigh private institutions. Private secondary schools in Nigeria tend to be quite high-priced with average annual fees averaging from one ascorbic acid and sixty to tercet hundred and twenty thousand naira($1000. 00 $2000. 00).These schools have smaller classes (approximately twenty to thirty students per class), upstart equipment and a better environment. Most teachers in these institutions possess at least(prenominal) a Bachelors Degree in a specific course area and are sent for workshops or short term programs on a regular basis. 2 Promotional exams With the introduction of 6-3-3-4 system of education in Nigeria, the reci pient role of the education would spend six years in primary school, lead years in junior secondary school,three years in senior secondary school, and four years in tertiary institution.The six years pass in primary school and the three years spent in junior secondary school are merged to form the nine in the 9-3-4 system. Altogether, the students must spend a marginal rate of flow of six years in Secondary School. During this period, students are expected to spend three years in Junior Secondary School and three years in Senior Secondary School. 2 The General Certificate of Education Examination (GCE) was replaced by the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE).The SSCE is conducted at the end of the Secondary School studies in May/June. The GCE is conducted in October/November as a supplement for those students who did not get the required credits from their SSCE results. The standards of the two examinations are basically the same. A automobile trunk called West Africa n Examination Council (WAEC) conducts both the SSCE and GCE. A maximum of nine and a minimum of septenary subjects are registered for the examination by each student with Mathematics and side Language taking as compulsory.2 A maximum of nine grades are assigned to each subject from A1, B2, B3 (Equivalent to Distinctions Grade) C4, C5, C6 (Equivalent to Credit Grade) D7, E8 (Just Pass Grade) F9 (Fail Grade). Credit grades and preceding(prenominal) is considered academically adequate for entry into any University in Nigeria. In some study programs, many of the universities may require higher grades to get admission. 2 The Federal Government policy on education is adhered to by all secondary schools in Nigeria. Six years of elementary school is followed by six years of secondary school.Senior Secondary school consists of the SS I, SS 2, and SS 3 which is akin to the 10th, 11th and 12th Grade. The Senior Secondary School Examination (SSCE) is taken at the end of the SS 3. The West Afr ican Examination Council (WAEC) administers both exams. tether to six months after a student has taken the SSCE examination, they are issued an formal transcript from their institution. This transcript is valid for one year, after which an Official transcript from the West African Examination Council is issued.National Examination Council is another examination body in Nigeria Senior Secondary School Examination (SSCE)in June/July. The body also administer General Certificate of Education Examination (GCE)in declination/January. The students often take both WAEC and NECO examinations in SSS 3. 2 Tertiary education The government has majority control of university education. The country has a total number of 128 universities registered by NUC among which federal and state government own 40 and 38 respectively while 50 universities are privately owned.First year entry requirements into most universities in Nigeria include Minimum of SSCE/GCE Ordinary Level Credits at maximum of tw o sittings Minimum cut-off marks in Joint Admission and Matriculation Board Entrance Examination (JAMB) of one hundred eighty and above out of a maximum of 400 marks are required. Candidates with minimum of Merit Pass in National Certificate of Education (NCE), National Diploma (ND) and other Advanced Level Certificates minimum qualifications with minimum of 5 O/L Credits are given direct entry admission into the appropriate undergraduate degree programs.2 Students normally come to university from age 18 onwards, and study for an academic degree. Historically, universities are divided into several(prenominal) tiers First extension Universities Five of these Universities were established between 1948 and 1965, sideline the testimonial of the Ashby Commission set up by the British Colonial Government to study the necessity of university education for Nigeria. These universities are fully funded by the federal government.They were established primarily to meet a imply for qualifie d strength in Nigeria and to set basic standards for university education. These universities have continued to play their roles for the action of qualified personnel and the provision of standards, which have helped to guide the subsequent establishments of other generations of universities in Nigeria. Universities in this tier include the University of Nigeria, Nsukka and the University of Ibadan. 2 Second Generation UniversitiesWith the change magnitude population of qualified students for university education in Nigeria and the growing needs for scientific and technological developments, setting up more universities became imperative. Between 1970 and 1985, 12 spare universities were established and located in various parts of the country. 2 Third Generation Universities The need to establish Universities to address special areas of Technological and Agricultural enquire prompted the setting up of 10 additional Universities between 1985 and 1999. 2 State Universities.Pressu res from qualified students from each state who could not readily get admissions to any of the Federal Universities continued to mount on States Governments. It became imperative and urgent for some State Governments to invest in the establishment of Universities. 2 Private Universities In recognition of the need to encourage private participation in the provision of university education, the Federal Government established a law in 1993, allowing private sectors to establish universities following guidelines prescribed by the Government.2 The typical duration of undergraduate programs in Nigerian universities depends largely on the program of study. For example, Social Sciences/Humanity related courses are 4 Years, Engineering/Technology related courses are 5 Years, chemists courses are 5 Years, and Law courses are 5 Years, each with two semester sessions per year. Medicine (Vet/Human) degrees take 6 Years and have longer sessions during the year. 2 Women in education Education has been recognized as a basic benevolent right since the 1948 adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.A compulsory correlation exists between the enrollment of girls in priary school and the gross national product and life expectancy. 3 Because of this correlation, enrollment in schools represents the largest component of societal enthronization into human capital. 4 Rapid socioeconomic development of a nation has been observed to depend on the calibre of women and their education in that country. 5 Education bestows on women a disposition for a lifelong acquisition of knowledge, values, attitudes, competence and skills. 6.