Monday, September 30, 2019
Social inequality and inequity are rampant cases that can be depicted on the status quo. These actually act as perpetrators of intractable crimes in our social milieu. These are indeed the catalyze for the spread pf communicable disease in the societyÃ¢â¬â-disparity. And even in the game of love, these have been proven to be the barrier that creates a greater disparity among the social statuses of our society. From the film entitled Wedding Crashers, the above-mentioned scenario was clearly exemplified. Having the fact that the two guys, who act as the wedding crashers, are commoners and the family of the girls they are eying for belong to the alta sociedad, the difference between the two becomes visible. When the two wedding crashers clashed with the daughter of a family under the Ã¢â¬Å"spellÃ¢â¬ of political realm, the two different worlds coincide portraying the different scenarios that truly happen in the society. The story is basically about a pair of friends who work in a law firm and were involved in various cases regarding divorce. This experience made them realize what wedding can only bring to them and doing serious about it is not their plan. Thus, the hobby of being wedding crashers become the outcome of their daily experience and seducing bridesmaids turn out to be a norm in their life. Until one day the partners in crime( Jeremy Klein and John Beckwith) bumped into the reality that not all of what they are doing will just lead them to a laugh-out-loud experience and endless cycle of seducing women. The comical life they always anticipate turns out to be a big chaos that both of them do not know how to give solution into it. Never did they imagine that a wrong party they will crush into will come along their way and make them decide to stop finally what they have planned and done habitually. The dilemma comes in when they crashed into the wedding party of the daughter of the NationÃ¢â¬â¢s Secretary of Treasury and finally fell in love with two of its sisters, Gloria ad Claire Cleary- a primary rule they should never break but inevitably did. Belonging to the different Ã¢â¬Å"faces of the societyÃ¢â¬ with different class status, political ideology, sociologicalÃ background an d points of view they are believing into, the the partnersÃ in crime necessitate to decide whether or not they shouldÃ still fight for the what they think is right or for what everyone else dictates them to be right. Taking into consideration their routinary life of cashing into the the wedding, seducing and flirting with whoever girls will be attracted to their machismo, now being crucially involved in a family dominated by political realm, the best of friends have to made a choice whether to turn their back to what their Ã¢â¬Å"past lifeÃ¢â¬ brings them and finally embrace a new life tat is absolutely different from the one they get used to because of love. But little did they know that the past they are trying to escape from will be the hindrance that will jeopardize theirÃ way towards pursuing their love. The film conveys the social milieu we are into: the art of seduction, the different social strata, the effectual influence of family upbringing and orientation, the dilemma between sincerity, mere attraction and plain sex, and the ambiguous disparity among working classes under the influence of politics. The film may portray a comical scenario that we do encounter inÃ our daily life. But that is only on the superficial part. What we do not see is theÃ depth of the issues behind all of the laughters and funny scenes. What we do not pay attention with is actually what we need to analyze in the movie. And what we do not hear after the jokes being cracked and humorous lined beingÃ delivered is the true orientation of the disparity in the society. Appearance must not be regarded as the sole reality. Not all we perceive as humorous in the superficial part will still be consistent with that of the details we have not encounter yet. True, the movie is funny! To crash into a wedding just to seduce women might seem just like an ordinary scene in the society. But to crash into a wedding of a high-class family belonging to a famous political icon and fell in love inevitably to its daughter is another story. The disparity in the society surreptitiously reeks everywhere. And an effective panacea for this malady only lies in our intellectual judgment andÃ doing away from the superficial depiction of the reality. And of course, not just mere perceiving that humorous thing cannot encounter a dilemma brought by the social inequity.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Ancient Greek Art: Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic By: Catherine Marten CLA3114 sect. 02D3 Spring 2013 Art is the expression or application of human creative skill and imagination, usually through visual forms. Art in ancient Greece went through a variety of changes throughout its history, especially from the Archaic to the Hellenistic periods. These changes are mainly due to the different views in Greek society that developed throughout these periods.The art of the Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic eras in ancient Greece are examples of how the philosophical views of the ancient Greeks changed and developed from 600-31 BCE and are still influencing views on art today. The art of ancient Greece during the Archaic era (600-480 BCE) made a shift from the earlier geometric forms of patterns and shapes to a more realistic form with large human sculptures being the focus. Many of the sculptures of this era seem to reflect an Egyptian influence from the East. The Archaic style of scu lpture was stiff and blocky like that of the Egyptians' sculptures.The two most prominent types of sculptures of this time were the male Ã¢â¬Å"kourosÃ¢â¬ , or standing youth, and the female Ã¢â¬Å"koreÃ¢â¬ , or standing draped maiden1. These large limestone statues were usually made as dedications to the gods or as grave markers. They could be found at funeral monuments outside of the city walls. Among the earliest examples of the type, the kouros in the Metropolitan Museum reveals Egyptian influence in both its pose and proportions2. The statues of the Archaic period were not always made to depict specific individuals.Instead, they exemplified the ancient Greek's new view of beauty and perfection. They were always statues of young men and women that ranged in age between adolescence and maturity. The male statues were usually not clothed and the female statues were clothed. This was most likely because the Greeks did not approve of female nudity in public. Another art form tha t emerged in the Archaic era was that of red figure pottery. It was invented in Athens around 530 BCE3. This style of pottery was characterized by red figures on a black background, where the figures were created in the original red of the clay.This allowed for more details to be seen in the pottery than with the earlier black figure technique because lines could be drawn onto the figures rather than being scraped out. The firing process of both red and black figure pottery was the same. It consisted of three stages. The first stage was called the oxidizing stage where air was allowed into the furnace. This resulted in the whole vase turning the color of the clay. In the second stage, green wood was introduced into the chamber and the oxygen supply was reduced. This caused the object to turn black in the smoky surroundings.In the third stage, air was reintroduced into the furnace which resulted in certain portions turning back to red while the glossed areas remained black. The red f igure technique gradually replaced the black figure technique as innovators recognized the possibilities that came with drawing forms4. Again, the images looked more realistic than previous art forms because of the more natural look of anatomy and garments. Painted vases were often made into different shapes for specific uses. A vase used for storing and transporting wine and food was called an Ã¢â¬Å"amphoraÃ¢â¬ .A vase used for drawing water was called a Ã¢â¬Å"hydriaÃ¢â¬ , and one used for drinking wine or water was called a Ã¢â¬Å"kantharosÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"kylixÃ¢â¬ 4. The subject matter of red figure vases varied greatly from portraits of the gods and heroes, to depictions of every day Athenian life5. This, in turn, led to result in an archaeological record of historical, social, and mythological information of ancient Greece. The pictorial decorations provide insights into many aspects of Greek life and complement some of the literary texts and inscriptions from the Arc haic and, especially, Classical eras6.The Classical era (480-323 BCE) showed more advancements in the art of sculpture. The main subjects of Classical sculpture were young and athletic men with a heavy emphasis on the details of the human body. Unlike the stiff and upright sculptures of the Archaic style, Classical sculptures were more naturalistic and oriented in positions that suggested movement. The fluidity of the sculptures reflected the freedom of movement and expression that was associated with an introduction of democracy7. The aim of the Classical style was perfection.This resulted in many of the faces of the statues looking the same which made it difficult to identify who the statue depicted at times. However, the subjects of the sculptures in the Classical era were specific people or gods, rather than just a generic young man or woman like in the Archaic era. The sculpture style of the Classical period started using marble and bronze to make the statues. Bronze, valued fo r its strength and beauty, became the preferred medium for freestanding sculptures. However, many of the original statues seem to have disappeared in history.This is most likely because they were found to be of great value. These famous statues are known of through ancient literature and Roman copies later made. Greek artists of the Classical era attained a manner of representation that conveys a vitality of life as well as a sense of permanence, clarity, and harmony8. Polykleitos of Argos was particularly famous for formulating a system of proportions that achieved this artistic effect and allowed others to reproduce it. The Classical period also saw the start of sculptors becoming well known for their works.One sculptor named Phidias created a statue of the goddess Athena made of ivory and gold which was housed inside the Parthenon in Athens. It was later stolen and no longer exists today. He is also well known for overseeing the design and building of the famous Parthenon which i s an artwork in itself. Another sculpture that Phidias is famous for is the Statue of Zeus in the Temple of Zeus found in Olympia. It, too, was made of ivory and gold and was eventually lost just like the statue of Athena. Another sculptor named Praxiteles was an Athenian who became famous for creating the nude Aphrodite of Knidos.This statue was one of the first statues showing a woman nude rather than draped in cloth. Its slender proportions and distinctive contrapposto stance became hallmarks of fourth century B. C. Greek sculpture8. The Hellenistic era (323-31 BCE) followed the conquests of Alexander the Great, and Greek culture started to spread more east to as far as India. During this period, Greek sculpture became even more naturalistic than in the Classical era. Young men and women were no longer the only subjects of sculpture. Instead, common people, children, elderly, and animals were subjects.There were even representations of unorthodox subjects, such as grotesques9. Sc ulptors no longer felt obliged to depict people as having ideal beauty or being perfect. Instead, heavy emotion and movement were the focus. Pain and fear were shown on the faces of figures and battle scenes were even carved into relief sculptures for temples. Sculpture eventually became somewhat of an industry during this era which resulted in some lowering of quality10. Because of this, many statues from the Hellenistic period are still around today unlike those of the Classical period.The Hellenistic period saw the decline of the painting of vases. Red figure painting died out and was replaced by what is known as West Slope ware. This style consisted of painting in a tan colored slip and white paint on a fired black slip background with some simpler detailing. The most common vases are black and uniform with a shiny appearance like that of varnish and decorated with simple motifs of flowers. The Hellenistic period is also the period when vases in relief appeared. Relief is a mode of sculpture where raised forms and figures projecting detail or ornament are distinguished from a surrounding plane surface.Many times wreaths in relief were applied to the body of vases. There were also more complex reliefs based on animals or mythological creatures. There also appeared to be a shift in the tradition of painting. Artists started to seek a greater variety of tints than in the past. However, these newer colors were more delicate and did not support heat. The painting occurred therefore after firing, in contrast to the traditional practice. The fragility of the pigments prevented frequent use of these vases. This resulted in them being reserved for use in funerals.The conventional end of the Hellenistic period is 31 BCE, the date of the battle of Actium. Octavian, who later became the emperor Augustus, defeated Marc Antony's fleet and, consequently, ended Ptolemaic rule9. The Ptolemies were the last Hellenistic dynasty to fall to Rome. Interest in Greek art and cult ure remained strong during the Roman Imperial period, and especially so during the reigns of the emperors Augustus and Hadrian. For centuries, Roman artists continued to make works of art in the Hellenistic tradition. Bibliography 1. Boardman, John.Greek Sculpture, The Archaic Period. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1978. 2. Department of Greek and Roman Art. Ã¢â¬Å"Greek Art in the Archaic PeriodÃ¢â¬ . In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000Ã¢â¬â. http://www. metmuseum. org/toah/hd/argk/hd_argk. htm (February 2013) 3. Boardman, John. The History of Greek Vases. Thames & Hudson, 2006. 4. Department of Greek and Roman Art. Ã¢â¬Å"Athenian Vase Painting: Black- and Red-Figure TechniquesÃ¢â¬ . In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000Ã¢â¬â. http://www. etmuseum. org/toah/hd/vase/hd_vase. htm (February 2013) 5. Carpenter, Thomas H. Art and Myth in Ancient Greece. Thames & Hudson, 1991. 6. No rris, Michael. Greek Art from Prehistoric to Classical: A Resource for Educators. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. 7. Pollitt, Jerome J. Art and Experience in Classical Greece. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972. 8. Hemingway, Colette, and Sean Hemingway. Ã¢â¬Å"The Art of Classical Greece (ca. 480Ã¢â¬â323 B. C. )Ã¢â¬ . In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000Ã¢â¬â. http://www. metmuseum. rg/toah/hd/tacg/hd_tacg. htm (February 2013) 9. Hemingway, Colette, and Sean Hemingway. Ã¢â¬Å"Art of the Hellenistic Age and the Hellenistic TraditionÃ¢â¬ . In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000Ã¢â¬â. http://www. metmuseum. org/toah/hd/haht/hd_haht. htm (February 2013) 10. Hemingway, Colette, and Sean Hemingway. Ã¢â¬Å"Ancient Greek Colonization and Trade and their Influence on Greek ArtÃ¢â¬ . In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2 000Ã¢â¬â. http://www. metmuseum. org/toah/hd/angk/hd_angk. htm (February 2013)
Saturday, September 28, 2019
The Holocaust has changed the lives of many people. The surviving people are talking a lot of terrible stories. Because their experience is too shocking to express in terms of words, many survivors are scared so that they can not tell their stories. Eli Wiesel overcomes this fear by publicly spreading the survival period of the Holocaust. His powerful and moving touch Night touched the hearts of many people and taught a good lesson to his readers. He teaches how the world can change in the worst case in a short time. He wants to make sure that if the world does not learn from the atrocities of the Holocaust, perhaps they will be able to learn something from Erie's own personal experience. The book Night by Elie Wiesel is a reminiscence of the Holocaust about the author's experience during the Holocaust. Elie Wiesel was born in Sighet in Transylvania in 1928. A book named Night is said by a boy named Eliezer. Eliezer is the representative of the author. Elie Wiesel said that the story is not about his experience, but most of the events in the novel are based on the life of Elie Wiesel. Elie and Eliezer's experience has subtle differences. This novel starts with Zeek in Transylvania. The night of Elie Wiesel is an iconic book whose headline represents the pain, pain, and most important death witnessed by childhood experience in the concentration camp in Elie Wiesel. Elie Wiesel, born in Shige in Transylvania, is from the Jews and is very interested in traditional Jewish religious studies. The Wiesel family (related to his three sisters, mother and father) was eradicated at Siguet's house and brought to Auschwitz as part of the massacre. Eli separated from his mother and three sisters at the Auschwitz concentration camp, surviving in Auschwitz, Buna, Buchenwald, Gleevitz. Eliezer Wiesel's night's reaction to the night 1. What is your writing? Night is autobiography of a man named Eliezer Wiesel. During World War II, autobiography was a very alarming record of Erie 's childhood camp in the Nazi of Auschwitz and Bouhenwald. In the evening it is a testimony to Erie Wiesel about his experience in the Holocaust, but Wiesel is not exactly the protagonist of this story. That night I was told by a boy named Eliezer called Eliezer, but the details separated Eliezer from the real Elie. The purpose of Elie Wiesel's Night Book is to analyze Night, an autobiographical record of terrible experience at Elie Wiesel's German concentration camp. Wiesel talks about the traumatic time of his life, whose purpose is to not let people forget the tragedy that others have to suffer. An important theme introduced at Night is that these devastating experiences have changed the view of life of the victims. By providing an abstract, criticism and certificate by the author Elie Wiesel, this
Friday, September 27, 2019
To See and Not See - Essay Example For instance, Virgil is known to have lived in blindness for nearly forty-five years and when this surgery is fronted up, for him it does not seem oblivious of any worries given that he longed to see. Several reasons can be suggested as to whether the surgery was right or wrong, but, it is clear even before the operation that the success of the surgery would have meant a new hope for all cases of blindness like Virgil. In essence, the success of the surgery would have appeared as start up for surgeries for the blind people in the future. According to Amy, there was nothing to be lost given that Virgil was already blind and not trying the surgery even if it would fail would have been detrimental (Sacks, 2012). Therefore, by pushing for the surgery, Amy was doing the right thing given that at the end of it all, it was successful and Virgil got his sight back despite a few challenges of confusion upon regaining back his sight. Additionally, the case of GregoryÃ¢â¬â¢s patient who received transplant at the age of fifty years was an indication that the surgery could be successfully achieved regardless of age. Several other surgeries of similar kinds had been done thus, indicating that VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s could succeed (Sacks, 2012). This type of surgery that was performed on Virgil in 1991, and since then, based on the technological advancements that have been witnessed in the field of medicine, it would be expected that the methods of conducting the surgery have been advanced. Other than this, the advantages attached to the success of this surgery would be beneficial to a blind patient. Hence, I would gladly support someone I knew who would be contemplating this surgery. However, as Sacks notes in his book, the patients who have undergone through this process, just like Virgil, are commonly faced with the challenge of the state of confusion in
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Human rights campaign proposal and Rationale - Essay Example The campaign will focus on the various enumerated human rights included in the HRA and draw attention to the fact that the HRA guarantees the protection of those rights in a single document as opposed to an accumulation of years of judgments and various legislative provisions that are open to interpretation. Our campaign will seek to emphasize that the HRA brings universally accepted human rights protection to Great Britain. We would therefore like to publish and display posters at visible sites such as bus stops, train stations, billboards and other public places. The posters will be marked by our campaign logo: WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Wrong with Human Rights? The body of the poster will list: The Right to Life; Prohibition against Torture; Prohibition against Slavery; the Right to Liberty; the Right to Fair and Public Trial; the Right to Privacy; Freedom of Conscience; Freedom of Expression; Freedom of Assembly; Presumption of innocence; and the Right to Marry. Surrounding the list of enumerated rights the poster will ask: Is this too Much to Ask? What if These Rights were Taken Away? At the bottom of the poster the following declaration will be made: These Rights are enumerated in the Human Rights Act 1998. Support our Campaign against the repeal of the Human Rights Act 1998. For more information visit our website: http.www.whatswrongwithhumanrights.org. We will maintain a website under the name whatswrongwithhumanrights.org. The homepage will display various images of the protection of human rights in practice. For instance, a trial will be displayed with images of a jury, a defendant, a judge, lawyers and members of the public drawing attention to the right to a fair and open trial. A picture of a man in blindfolds and handcuffed being interrogated by uniformed police officers with a red X across the photograph emphasising protection against torture. Another picture with a man or woman with a noose around his or her
New Business Project by Volkswagen - Essay Example As the company announced the recall of nearly 9 million cars, it was estimated that an amount of Ã¢â ¬ 6.5 billion was required to come up with the costs of the scandal. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the company to come up with a new business project with the changed framework to regain its brand value and market share in the car industry. As the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stocks which reflected the market concerns significantly fell down, it became the toughest challenge for the company to bring back their position and win the loyalty of the consumers. 2.1 Force Field Analysis of Volkswagen When Volkswagen was planning for a business change in order to gain back its hard-earned reputation, it is necessary to analyze the major factors forces which will support and hinder such change. In this context, Force Field Analysis is an important decision-making tool that can assist it in making the decision for a change within the business. Such an analysis will serve the purposes of i) deci ding whether to undertake the change after evaluating the factors; ii) of increasing the chance of success of the change by weakening the forces against the change and by strengthening those in support of the change. The new business project or the proposed change by Volkswagen is the brand enhancement. After involvement in the major emissions scandal, what suffered most is the brand appreciation of the company and its perception to the ones who are related to its product i.e. the consumers, suppliers, dealers, employees and the shareholders.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
How Horses Were Still Used In World War I - Term Paper Example How Horses Were Still Used In World War I This paper aims to establish this opinion that WWI hugely influenced human and animal interrelationships by the way horses were used in the war. It will also highlight different ways in which horses were used. Discussion will be supported with important research literature to assess the extent to which this opinion could be held true. History shows that cavalry units or warriors mounted on horseback formed an essential constituent of a military force. It is claimed that Ã¢â¬Å"the best horses were taken by the cavalryÃ¢â¬ (Breverton). The greater the number of horses, the stronger a military force was considered. This is before the vulnerability of animals to modern artillery was much of an issue. However, horses continued to be used in WWI because warfare was also going through important changes in this time period. Warfare used in WWI had not been used before, so not much was known by the combatants about the vulnerability of animals before machine guns or tanks. It should be remembered that this war changed the concept of armed conflict. This is because it represents a very important transition from the use of horses to modern artillery. WWI was started with cavalry forces, but the favor shifted from horses to machine guns over passing time. This shift also occurred because Ã¢â¬Å"supplying the fodder for ho rses and mules was a permanent problemÃ¢â¬ (Breverton). WWI marks a transition period in human and animal interrelationships.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Wild vs. lab rodent comparison supports hygiene hypothesis - Article Example This makes sense, since over 58 million Americans have some form of allergies or autoimmune disease (Merritt, 2006). This has been supported by the levels of different types of antibodies found when comparing laboratory rats and mice to those trapped in the wild (Devalapalli et al., 2006). While exposure to fewer microbes in childhood may cause higher levels of allergies, it is also related to positive benefits such as reduced infant mortality and increased longevity (Wills-Karp, Santeliz, & Karp, 2001). Therefore, while reduced exposure to microbes could in fact lead to increased incidence of allergies and auto-immune diseases, as shown by the hygiene hypothesis and the immune responses of laboratory rodents, there is still clear benefit to living in a society that values hygiene. References Devalapalli, A. P., Lesher, A., Shieh, K., Solow, J. S., Everett, M. L., Edala, A. S., . . . Parker, W. (2006). Increased Levels of IgE and Autoreactive, Polyreactive IgG in Wild Rodents: Implic ations for the Hygiene Hypothesis. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 64(2), 125-136. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3083.2006.01785.x Merritt, R. (2006, 16 Jun).
Monday, September 23, 2019
Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer - Essay Example So my plans are to find out what error is preventing my firewall form being able to be scanned. I will also take protective measures in establishing password expirations for my user accounts. Overall, IÃ¢â¬â¢m not surprised at the results of my security assessment due to the fact that IÃ¢â¬â¢m the only user of this computer, and I exercise safe practices while using it, and I only use it on an as needed basis. MBSA is multi-threaded and has the capacity to scan a whole domain and extensive address range within a short time frame. One MBSA system can operate a scanning process in a few seconds to several minutes; however, this depends on the number of user machines. A lot of time is usually taken in scanning for weak passwords when utilizing MBSA machines. Such tests involve checking empty passwords together with common password dimensions such as: The name of the machine, user name, and administrator. In order to avoid frequent checking of passwords, it is pertinent to scan a personÃ¢â¬â¢s premises more often. When the weak passwords are not tested or checked, the option for testing (Checking) passwords for Windows accounts as well as SQL accounts are disabled (Fahland and Schultze, 2010). Majority of users log on to computers or in to remote computers through utilization of a combined user name and a password keyed into the keyboard. In spite the fact that there exist various alternative technologies meant for authentication ranging from; smartcards, biometrics as well as instant passwords, a good number of organizations to some extent continue to rely on traditional passwords; this is projected to continue for sometime. It is therefore imperative that organizations formulate and implement password policies to guide the use of their computers such as the use stronger passwords. Such passwords possess the required level of complexity characterized by the character facets and the length dimensions. This feature makes it hard to hard such passwords.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Reflecting on Ã¢â¬ËReflective practiceÃ¢â¬â¢ Essay Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe reflective practices offer us a way of trying to make sense of the uncertainty in our workplaces and the courage to work competently and ethically at the edge of order and chaosÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Ghaye, 2000, p.7) Reflective practice has burgeoned over the last few decades throughout various fields of professional practice and education. In some professions it has become one of the defining features of competence, even if on occasion it has been adopted mistakenly and unreflectively to rationalise existing practice. The allure of the Ã¢â¬Ëreflection bandwagonÃ¢â¬â¢ lies in the fact that it Ã¢â¬Ërings trueÃ¢â¬â¢ (Loughran, 2000). Within different disciplines and intellectual traditions, however, what is understood by Ã¢â¬Ëreflective practiceÃ¢â¬â¢ varies considerably (Fook et al, 2006). Multiple and contradictory understandings of reflective practice can even be found within the same discipline. Despite this, some consensus has been achieved amid the profusion of definitions. In general, reflective practice is understood as the process of learning through and from experience towards gaining new insights of self and/or practice (Boud et al 1985; Boyd and Fales, 1983; Mezirow, 1981, Jarvis, 1992). This often involves examining assumptions of everyday practice. It also tends to involve the individual practitioner in being self-aware and critically evaluating their own responses to practice situations. The point is to recapture practice experiences and mull them over critically in order to gain new understandings and so improve future practice. This is understood as part of the process of life-long learning. Beyond these broad areas of agreement, however, contention and difficulty reign. There is debate about the extent to which practitioners should focus on themselves as individuals rather than the larger social context. There are questions about how, when, where and why reflection should take place. For busy professionals short on time, reflective practice is all too easily applied in bland, mechanical, unthinking ways, Would-be practitioners may also find it testing to stand back from painful experiences and seek to be analytical about them. In this tangle of understandings, misunderstandings and difficulties, exactly how to apply and teach reflective practice effectively has become something of a conundrum. This paper explores current ideas and debates relating to reflective practice. In the first two sections, I review key definitions and models of reflection commonly used in professional practice. Then, in the reflective spirit myself, I critically examine the actual practice of the concept, highlighting ethical, professional, pedagogic and conceptual concerns. I put forward the case that reflective practice is both complex and situated and that it cannot work if applied mechanically or simplistically. On this basis, I conclude with some tentative suggestions for how educators might nurture an effective reflective practice involving critical reflection. Defining reflective practice Ã¢â¬ ¦reflection can mean all things to all peopleÃ¢â¬ ¦it is used as a kind of umbrella or canopy term to signify something that is good or desirableÃ¢â¬ ¦everybody has his or her own (usually undisclosed) interpretation of what reflection means, and this interpretation is used as the basis for trumpeting the virtues of reflection in a way that makes it sound as virtuous as motherhood. Smyth (1992, p.285) The term Ã¢â¬Ëreflective practiceÃ¢â¬â¢ carries multiple meanings that range from the idea of professionals engaging in solitary introspection to that of engaging in critical dialogue with others. Practitioners may embrace it occasionally in formal, explicit ways or use it more fluidly in ongoing, tacit ways. For some, reflective practice simply refers to adopting a thinking approach to practice. Others see it as self-indulgent navel gazing. For others still, itÃ involves carefully structured and crafted approaches towards being reflective about oneÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences in practice. For example, with reference to teacher education, Larrivee argues that: Ã¢â¬Å"Unless teachers develop the practice of critical reflection, they stay trapped in unexamined judgments, interpretations, assumptions, and expectations. Approaching teaching as a reflective practitioner involves fusing personal beliefs and values into a professional identityÃ¢â¬ (Larrivee, 2000, p.293). In practice, reflective practice is often seen as the bedrock of professional identity. Ã¢â¬Å"Reflecting on performance and acting on refectionÃ¢â¬ , as McKay (2008, Forthcoming) notes, Ã¢â¬Å"is a professional imperative.Ã¢â¬ Indeed, it has been included in official benchmark standards laid down for professional registration and practice (see table 1 in Appendix 1). One example is in the way it has been included, explicitly and implicitly, in all Project 2000 curricula for Nursing Diplomas, while reflection is highlighted as a pivotal skill to achieve required Standards of Proficiencies in nursing and other health professional education (NMC, 2004; HPC, 2004). It has also become a key strand of approaches to the broader field of continuing professional development, work-based learning and lifelong learning (Eby, 2000; HPC, 2006). Given its growing emphasis in professional practice and education, it would seem important to explore the concept of reflective practice in some detail. To this end, this section distinguishes between different types of reflective practice and looks at the sister concepts of reflection, critical reflection and reflexivity. Reflection Ã¢â¬ËinÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËonÃ¢â¬â¢ practice Dewey (1933) was among the first to identify reflection as a specialised form of thinking. He considered reflection to stem from doubt, hesitation or perplexity related to a directly experienced situation. For him, this prompted purposeful inquiry and problem resolution (Sinclair, 1998). Dewey also argued that reflective thinking moved people away from routine thinking/action (guided by tradition or external authority) towardsÃ reflective action (involving careful, critical consideration of taken-for-granted knowledge). This way of conceptualising reflection crucially starts with experience and stresses how we learn from Ã¢â¬ËdoingÃ¢â¬â¢, i.e. practice. Specifically Dewey argued that we Ã¢â¬Ëthink the problem outÃ¢â¬â¢ towards formulating hypotheses in trial and error reflective situations and then use these to plan action, testing out our ideas. DeweyÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas provided a basis for the concept of Ã¢â¬Ëreflective practiceÃ¢â¬â¢ which gained influence with the arrival of SchonÃ¢â¬â¢s (1983) Ã¢â¬ËThe reflective practitioner: how professionals think in actionÃ¢â¬â¢. In this seminal work, Schon identified ways in which professionals could become aware of their implicit knowledge and learn from their experience. His main concern was to facilitate the development of reflective practitioners rather than describe the process of reflection per se. However, one of his most important and enduring contributions was to identify two types of reflection: reflection-on-action (after-the-event thinking) and reflection-in-action (thinking while doing). In the case of reflection-on-action, professionals are understood consciously to review, describe, analyse and evaluate their past practice with a view to gaining insight to improve future practice. With reflection-in-action, professionals are seen as examining their experiences and responses as they occur. In both types of reflection, professionals aim to connect with their feelings and attend to relevant theory. They seek to build new understandings to shape their action in the unfolding situation. In SchonÃ¢â¬â¢s words: The practitioner allows himself to experience surprise, puzzlement, or confusion in a situation which he finds uncertain or unique. He reflects on the phenomenon before him, and on the prior understandings which have been implicit in his behaviour. He carries out an experiment which serves to generate both a new understanding of the phenomenon and a change in the situation. (Schon, 1983, p. 68) For Schon, reflection-in-action was the core of Ã¢â¬Ëprofessional artistryÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â a concept he contrasted with the Ã¢â¬Ëtechnical-rationalityÃ¢â¬â¢ demanded by the (still dominant) positivist paradigm whereby problems are solvable through the rigorous application of science. A contemporary example of this paradigm is the evidence-based practice movement, which favours quantitative studiesÃ over qualitative ones, and established protocols over intuitive practice. In SchonÃ¢â¬â¢s view, technical-rationality failed to resolve the dilemma of Ã¢â¬Ërigour versus relevanceÃ¢â¬â¢ confronting professionals. SchonÃ¢â¬â¢s argument, since taken up by others (e.g. Fish and Coles,1998), was as follows: Professional practice is complex, unpredictable and messy. In order to cope, professionals have to be able to do moreÃ than follow set procedures. They draw on both practical experience and theory as they think on their feet and improvise. They act both intuitively and cr eatively. Both reflection-in and on -action allows them to revise, modify and refine their expertise. Schon believed that as professionals become more expert in their practice, they developed the skill of being able to monitor and adapt their practice simultaneously, perhaps even intuitively. In contrast, novice practitioners, lacking knowing-in-action (tacit knowledge), tended to cling to rules and procedures, which they are inclined to apply mechanically. Schon argued that novices needed to step back and, from a distance, take time to think through situations. Whether expert or novice, all professionals should reflect on practice Ã¢â¬â both in general and with regard to specific situations. SchonÃ¢â¬â¢s work has been hugely influential some would say Ã¢â¬ËcanonicalÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â in the way it has been applied to practice and professional training and education. For example, in the health care field, Atkins and Murphy (1993) identify three stages of the reflective process. The first stage, triggered by the professional becoming aware of uncomfortable feelings and thoughts, is akin to SchonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëexperience of surpriseÃ¢â¬â¢ (what Boyd and Fales, 1983, identify as Ã¢â¬Ëa sense of inner discomfortÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëunfinished businessÃ¢â¬â¢). The second stage involves a critical analysis of feelings and knowledge. The final stage of reflection involves the development of a new perspective. Atkins and Murphy argue that both cognitive and affective skills are prerequisites for reflection and that these combine in the processes of self-awareness, critical analysis, synthesis and evaluation (see Appendix 2). In the education field, Grushka, Hinde-McLeod and Reynolds (2005) distinguish between Ã¢â¬Ëreflection for actionÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëreflection in actionÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëreflection on actionÃ¢â¬â¢ (see Appendix 3). They offer a series of technical, practical and critical questions for teachers to engage with. For example, under reflection for action teachers are advised to consider their resources and how long the lesson will take (technical); how to make the resources relevant to different learning styles (practical); and to question why they are teaching this particular topic (critical). Zeichner and Liston (1996) differentiate between five different levels at which reflection can take place during teaching: 1. Rapid reflection immediate, ongoing and automatic action by the teacher. 2. Repair Ã¢â¬â in which a thoughtful teacher makes decisions to alter their behaviour in response to studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ cues. 3. Review Ã¢â¬â when a teacher thinks about, discusses or writes about some element of their teaching. 4. Research Ã¢â¬â when a teacher engages in more systematic and sustained thinking over time, perhaps by collecting data or reading research. 5. Retheorizing and reformulating Ã¢â¬â the process by which a teacher critically examines their own practice and theories in the light of academic theories. While SchonÃ¢â¬â¢s work has inspired many such models of reflection and categories of reflective practice, it has also drawn criticism. Eraut (2004) faults the work for its lack of precision and clarity. Boud and Walker (1998) argue that SchonÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis ignores critical features of the context of reflection. Usher et al (1997) find SchonÃ¢â¬â¢s account and methodology unreflexive, while Smyth (1989) deplores the atheoretical and apolitical quality of his conceptions. Greenwood (1993), meanwhile, targets Schon for downplaying the importance of reflection-before-action. Moon (1999) regards SchonÃ¢â¬â¢s pivotal concept of reflection-in-action as unachievable, while Ekebergh (2006) draws onÃ phenomenological philosophy to argue that it is not possible to distance oneself from the lived situation to reflect in the moment. To achieve real self-reflection, she asserts, one needs to step out of the situation and reflect retrospectively (van Manen, 1990). Given this level of criticism, questions have to raised about the wide adoption of SchonÃ¢â¬â¢s work and the wayÃ it has been applied in professional practice and education (Usher et al, 1997). There have been calls for a m ore critical, reflexive exploration of the nature of reflective practice. Reflection, critical reflection and reflexivity Contemporary writing on reflective practice invites professionals to engage in both personal reflection and broader social critique. For example, work within the Open UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s Health and Social Care faculty has put forward a model whereby reflective practice is seen as a synthesis of reflection, self-awareness and critical thinking (Eby, 2000) (see figure 1). In this model, the philosophical roots of reflective practice are identified in phenomenology (with its focus on lived experience and personal consciousness) and also in critical theory (which fosters the development of a critical consciousness towards emancipation and resisting oppression ). Self-awareness Roots: phenomenology The cognitive ability to think, feel, sense and know through intuition To evaluate the knowledge derived through self-awareness to develop understanding Reflection Roots: existential phenomenology and critical theory -interpretive and critical theory tool for promoting self- and social awareness and social action improving self-expression, learning and co-operation links theory and practice Reflective Practice Critical thinking Roots: scepticism and critical theory identifying and challenging assumptions challenging the importance of context to imagine and explore alternatives which leads to reflective scepticism Figure 1 Skills underpinning the concept of reflective practice. Other authors argue for the concept of critical reflection, which is seen as offering a more thorough-going form of reflection through the use of critical theory (Brookfield, 1995). For adherents of critical reflection, reflection on its own tends to Ã¢â¬Å"remain at the level of relatively undisruptive changes in techniques or superficial thinkingÃ¢â¬ (Fook, White and Gardner, 2006, p.9). In contrast, critical reflection involves attending to discourse and social and political analysis; it seeks to enable transformative social action and change. For Fook (2006), critical reflectionÃ Ã¢â¬Å"enables an understanding of the way (socially dominant) assumptions may be socially restrictive, and thus enables new, more empowering ideas and practices. Critical reflection thus enables social change beginning at individual levels. Once individuals become aware of the hidden power of ideas they have absorbed unwittingly from their social contexts, they are then freed to make choices on their own terms.Ã¢â¬ Fook and Askeland argue that the focus of critical reflection should be on connecting individual identity and social context:Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Part of the power of critical reflection in opening up new perspectives andÃ choices about practice may only be realized if the connections between individual thinking and identity, and dominant social beliefs are articulated and realized.Ã¢â¬ (Fook and Askeland, 2006, p.53). For Reynolds (1998), four characteristics distinguish critical reflection from other versions of reflection : (1) its concern to question assumptions; (2) its social rather than individual focus; (3) the particular attention it pays to the analysis of power relations; and (4) its pursuit of emancipation (Reynolds, 1998). By way of example, Reynolds argues that when managers critically reflect (rather than just reflect) they become aware of the wider environment in which they operate. They begin to grasp the social power exercised by their organisation through its networks and relationships. : In the field of teaching, Brookfield (1995) characterises critical reflection as Ã¢â¬Ëstance and danceÃ¢â¬â¢. The critically reflective teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s stance toward teaching is one of inquiry and being open to further investigation. The dance involves experimentation and risk towards modifying practice while moving to fluctuating, and possibly contradictory, rhythms (Larrivee, 2000). A key concept giving momentum to the idea of reflective practice involving both personal reflection and social critique is reflexivity. Reflexive practitioners engage in critical self-reflection: reflecting critically on the impact of their own background, assumptions, positioning, feelings, behaviour while also attending to the impact of the wider organisational, discursive, ideological and political context. The terms reflection, critical reflection and reflexivity are often confused and wrongly assumed to be interchangeable. Finlay and Gough (2003, p. ix) find it helpful to think of these concepts forming a continuum. At one end stands reflection, defined simply as Ã¢â¬Ëthinking aboutÃ¢â¬â¢ something after the event. At the other end stands reflexivity: a more immediate and dynamic process which involves continuing self-awareness. Critical reflection lies somewhere in between. Previously, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve proposed five overlapping variants of reflexivity with critical selfreflection at the core: introspection; intersubjective reflection; mutual collaboration; social critique and ironic deconstruction (Finlay, 2002, 2003). These variants can similarly be applied toÃ distinguishing between the types of reflection practitioners could engage in when reflecting on practice. Reflective practice as introspection involves the practitioner in solitary self-dialogue in which they probe personal meanings andÃ emotions. Intersubjective reflection makes the practitioner focus on the relational context, on the emergent, negotiated nature of practice encounters. With mutual collaboration, a participatory, dialogical approach to reflective practice is sought what Ghaye (2000) calls a Ã¢â¬Ëreflective conversationÃ¢â¬â¢. Here, for example, a mentor and student, or members of a team, seek to solve problems collaboratively. Reflective practice as social critique focuses attention on the wider discursive, social and political context. For instance, the practitioner may think about coercive institutional practices or seek to manage the power imbalances inherent in education/practice contexts. Finally, reflective practice as ironic deconstruction would cue into postmodern and poststructural imperatives to deconstruct discursive practices and represent something of the ambiguity and multiplicity of meanings in particular organisational and social contexts. At the very least, a critical and possibly satirical gaze could be turned to challenging the ubiquitously unreflexive rhetoric of reflective practice. In practice, introspection is the dominant mode of reflective practice. Sometimes presented as merely a promising personal attribute (Loughran , 2006), it is a predominantly individualistic and personal exercise (Reynolds and Vince, 2004) in which practitioners tend to focus on their own thoughts, feelings, behaviours and evaluations. This passes as legitimate Ã¢â¬Ëreflective practiceÃ¢â¬â¢ which professionals then can use to advance their cause to fit formal requirements for continuing professional development. While such reflective practice may take place in dialogical contexts such as supervision sessions, the onus stays on the individual practitioner to reflect upon and evaluate their own practice. What is lacking is any mutual, reciprocal, shared process. Institutional structures and quality assuranceÃ systems encourage, perhaps even require, this individual focus. It starts early on during professional education and training where learners engage professional socialisation and are taught how to reflect, using structured models of reflection. One of the consequences of the lack of consensus and clarity about the concept of reflective practice is the proliferation of different versions and models to operationalise reflective practice.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Prevention Of Abuse To Vunerable Adults In 1992 the Department of Health and the then, Social Services Inspectorate, in England, published the findings of a survey of two social services Departments in relation to abuse. This publication found there to be a lack of assessments in large numbers of elder abuse cases and little evidence of inter-agency cooperation. The report recommended guidelines to assist social services in their work with older people (DH/SSI 1992). During the 1990s concerns had been raised throughout the UK regarding the abuse of vulnerable adults. The social services inspectorate published Confronting elder abuse (SSI 1992) and following this, practice guidelines No longer afraid (SSI 1993). No longer afraid provided practice guidelines for responding to, what was acknowledged at that time, as elder abuse. It was aimed at professionals in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and emphasised clear expectations that policies should be multi-agency and also include ownership and operational responsibilities (Bennett et al 1997). This guidance was issued under section 7 of the Local Authority Social Services Act 1970 and gives local authority Social Service departments a co-ordinating role in the development and implementation of local vulnerable adult policies and procedures. In 2000, the department of Health published the guidance No Secrets. The purpose of No Secrets was aimed primarily at local authority social services departments, but also gave the local authority the lead in co-ordinating other agencies i.e. police, NHS, housing providers (DOH 2000). The guidance does not have the full force of statute, but should be complied with unless local circumstances indicate exceptional reasons which justify a variation (No Secrets, 2000) The aim of No Secrets was to provide a coherent framework for all responsible organisations to devise a clear policy for the protection of vulnerable adults at risk of abuse and to provide appropriate responses to concerns, anxieties and complaints of abuse /neglect (DOH 2000). Scotland Historical In December 2001, the Scottish Executive published Vulnerable Adults: Consultation Paper (2001 consultation) (Scottish Executive, 2001). This sought views on the extension of the vulnerable adults provisions to groups other than persons with mental disorder and the possible introduction of provisions to exclude persons living with a vulnerable adult, where the adults health is at risk. A joint inquiry was conducted by the Social Work Services Inspectorate and the Mental Welfare Commission for Scotland. Both of these agencies were linked with the central government of Scotland who had responsibility for the oversight of social work services and care and treatment for persons with mental health problems. In the report by the Scottish Executive (2004), a case of a woman who was admitted to a general hospital with multiple injuries from physical and sexual assault and who had a learning disability became the focus for change for Scotland in terms of adults who have been abused. The police investigation identified a catalogue of abuse and assaults ranging back weeks and possibly longer. In June 2003 the Minister for Education and Young People, Peter Peacock MSP, asked the Social Work Services Inspectorate (SWSI) to carry out an inspection of the social work services provided to people with learning disabilities by Scottish Borders Council. At the same time, the Mental Welfare Commission for Scotland (MWC) also undertook an inquiry into the involvement of health services, though worked closely with SWSI during its inquiry. The two bodies produced separate reports, but also published a joint statement (MWC and SWSI, 2004), which summarised their findings and stated their recommendations. The findings included: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ a failure to investigate appropriately very serious allegations of abuse Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ a lack of information-sharing and co-ordination within and between key agencies (social work, health, education, housing, police) Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ a lack of risk assessment and failure to consider allegations of sexual abuse a lack of understanding of the legislative framework for intervention and its capacity to provide protection Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ a failure to consider statutory intervention at appropriate stages The Adult Support and Protection (Scotland) Act 2007 (ASPA) is a result of the events that were known as the Scottish Borders Enquiry. Following the various police investigations, it was identified that there were historical links between the client and the offenders who were later prosecuted in terms of statements held by social services department detailing the offenders behaviour towards the woman and that this information was held on file. The Scottish Executive (2004) described the case as extremely disturbing but even more shocking to many that so many concerns about this woman had been made known and not acted on. As a consequence, 42 recommendations from the inquiry were made and there was a specific recommendation which was taken to the Scottish Executive and involved the provision of comprehensive adult protection legislation as a matter of urgency as there had been concerns raised from political groups and high profile enquiries to provide statute for the protection of adults at risk of abuse in Scotland (Mackay 2008). The Scottish framework links with three pieces of legislation. In 2000, the Adults with Incapacity (Scotland) Act [AWISA 2000] was passed and focused on protecting those without capacity with financial and welfare interventions for those unable to make a decisions. Second, the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act (2003) [MHSA (2003)] modernised the way in which care and treatment could be delivered both in hospital and the community and improved patients rights. Finally, the Adult Support and Protection (Scotland) Act (2007) [ASPSA (2007)] widened the range of community care service user groups who could be subject to assessment, and mainly short-term intervention, if they were deemed to be adults at risk of harm. Mackay (2008) argues that the Scottish arrangements both mirror and differ from those of England and Wales. She maps out the intervention powers for adults at risk of harm into a type of hierarchical structure known as a pyramid of intervention which aims to reflect the framework of the various pieces of Scottish legislation and goes onto say that the principle underlying all of the legislation is minimum intervention to achieve the desired outcome. Critique of definitions. In England, the No Secrets (2000) guidance defines a vulnerable adult as a person aged 18 or over and who is or may be in need of community care services by reason of mental or other disability, age or illness; and who is or may be unable to take care of him or herself, or unable to protect him or herself against significant harm or exploitation (DOH 2000 Section 2.3) The groups of adults targeted by No Secrets were those who is or may be eligible for community care services. And within that group, those who were unable to protect themselves from significant harm were referred to as vulnerable adults. Whilst the phrase vulnerable adults names the high prevalence of abuse experienced by the group, there is a recognition that this definition is contentious. ADSS (2005). The definition of a vulnerable adult referred to in the 1997 consultation paper Who Decides issued by the Lord Chancellors Department is a person: who is, or may be in need of Community Care Services by reason of mental or other disability, age or illness: and who Is, or may be unable to take care of him or herself, or unable to protect him or herself against significant harm or exploitation (Law Commission Report 231, 1995) There are however broader definitions of vulnerability which are used in different guidance and in the more recent Crime and Disorder Act (1998) it refers to vulnerable sections of the community and embraces ethnic minority communities and people rendered vulnerable by social exclusion and poverty rather than service led definitions. There is concern, however, that the current England framework is more restricted than it should be, and that the problem is one of definition. The House of Commons Health Committee, says that No secrets should not be confined to people requiring community care services, and that it should also apply to old people living in their own homes without professional support and anyone who can take care of themselves (House of Commons Health Committee, 2007). Even within the ADASS National Framework (2005) it has been argued that vulnerability seems to locate the cause of abuse with the victim, rather than placing responsibility with the acts or omissions of others (ADASS, 2005) The Law Commission speaks favourably of the Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006, which, it says, understands vulnerability purely through the situation an adult is placed [in] (Law Commission, 2008). It is now becoming questionable whether the term vulnerable be replaced with the term at risk. If we were to look at the current legislation in England surrounding the investigations of abuse to adults, there are none, however there are underpinning pieces of legislation which whilst not in its entirety focus specifically on the adult abuse remit, but can be drawn upon to protect those most vulnerable. There are many duties underpinning investigations of adult abuse, but no specific legislation. The NHS and Community Care Act 1990, section 47 assessments can be implemented in order to consider an adults need for services and can therefore consider any risk factors present at the time of the assessment. From this, assessment and commissioned services can support people who have been abused or can prevent abuse from occurring. The National Assistance Act (1948) deals with the welfare of people with disabilities and states that the: local authority shall make arrangements for promoting the welfare of person whosuffers from a mental disorderwho are substantially and permanently handicapped by illness, injury or congenital deformity or other disabilities and gives power to provide services arising out of an investigation out of the NHS Community care Act 1990. (Mantell 2009). The Fair Access to Care Services 2003 (FACS) recognises that community care services will be a vital aspect of adult protection work (Spencer- Lane, 2010). Interestingly the eligibility criteria that superseded Fair Access to Care from April 2010 (Prioritising Need in the context of Putting People First: A whole systems approach to eligibility for Social Care), continues to place adults who are experiencing, or at risk of experiencing abuse or neglect, in Critical and substantial needs criteria banding, as FACS did. Another definition of a vulnerable adult is cited within The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act (2006), (SVG Act 2006), and defines a vulnerable adult as: A person is a vulnerable adult if he has attained the age of 18 and: (a)he is in residential accommodation, (b)he is in sheltered housing, (c)he receives domiciliary care, (d)he receives any form of health care, (e)he is detained in lawful custody, (f)he is by virtue of an order of a court under supervision by a person exercising functions for the purposes of Part 1 of the Criminal Justice and Court Services Act 2000 (c. 43), (g)he receives a welfare service of a prescribed description, (h)he receives any service or participates in any activity provided specifically for persons who fall within subsection (9), (i)payments are made to him (or to another on his behalf) in pursuance of arrangements under section 57 of the Health and Social Care Act 2001 (c. 15), or (j)he requires assistance in the conduct of his own affairs. This particular act appears to take an alternative approach to the term vulnerability. It refers to places where a person is placed and is situational. (Law Commission, 2008). Following the consultation of No Secrets, one of the key findings of the consultation was the role that the National Health Service played in relation to Safeguarding Vulnerable adults and their systems. The Department of Health produced a document titled Clinical Governance and Adult Safeguarding- An Integrated Process (DOH 2010). The aim of the guidance is to encourage organisations to develop processes and systems which focused on complaints, healthcare incidents and how these aspects fall within the remit of Safeguarding processes and to empower reporting of such as it identified that clinical governance systems did not formally recognise the need to work in collaboration with Local Authorities when concerns arise during healthcare delivery. The definition of who is vulnerable in this NHS guidance, refers to the Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act (2006) and states that any adult receiving any form of healthcare is vulnerable and that there is no formal definition of vulnerability within health care but those receiving healthcare may be at greater risk from harm than others (DOH 2010). In the Care Standards Act 2000 it describes a Vulnerable adult as: (a) an adult to whom accommodation and nursing or personal care are provided in a care home; (b) an adult to whom personal care is provided in their own home under arrangements made by a domiciliary care agency; or (c) an adult to whom prescribed services are provided by an independent hospital, independent clinic, independent medical agency or National Health Service body. Similar to the Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act, the Care Standards Act 2000 classifies the term vulnerable adult as situational and circumstantial rather than specific and relevant to a persons individual circumstance. Spencer-Lane (2010) says that these definitions of vulnerability in England have been the subject of increasing criticism. He states that the location of the cause of the abuse rests with the victim rather than the acts of others; that vulnerability is an inherent characteristic of the person and that no recognition is given that it might be contextual, by setting or place that makes the person vulnerable. Interestingly Spencer -Lane (2010) prefers the concept of adults at risk. He goes on to suggest a new definition that adults at risk are based on two approaches as the Law Commission feel that the term vulnerable adults should be replaced by adults at risk to reflect these two concerns: To reflect the persons social care needs rather than the receipt of services or a particular diagnosis What the person is at risk from whether or not the term significant harm should be used but would include ill treatment or the impairment of health or development or unlawful conduct which would include financial abuse Spencer-Lane (2010) also argues that with the two approaches above, concerns remain regarding the term significant harm as he feels the threshold for this type of risk is too high and whether the term in its entirety at risk of harm be used whilst encompassing the following examples: ill treatment; impairment of health or development; unlawful conduct. Unlike in Scotland, there are no specific statutory provisions for adult protection; the legal framework is provided through a combination of the common law, local authority guidance and general statute law (Spencer-Lane 2010). Whereby in England the term vulnerable adult is used, in Scotland the term in the Adult Support and Protection (Scotland) Act 2007 uses the term adults at risk. This term was derived by the Scottish Executive following their 2005 consultation were respondents criticised the word vulnerable as they believed it focussed on a person disability rather than their abilities, hence the Scottish executive adopted the term at risk (Payne, 2006). Martin (2007) questions the definition of vulnerability and highlights how the vulnerability focus in England leaves the deficit with the adult, as opposed to their environment. She uses the parallel argument to that idea of disabling environments, rather than the disabled person, within the social model of disability. She goes on to comment that processes within society can create vulnerability. People, referred to as vulnerable adults, may well be in need of community care services to enjoy independence, but what makes people vulnerable is that way in which they are treated by society and those who support them. It could be argues that vulnerability and defining a person as vulnerable could be construed as being oppressive. This act states that an adult at risk is unable to safeguard their own well-being, property, rights or other interests; at risk of harm and more vulnerable because they have a disability, mental disorder, illness or physical or mental infirmity. It also details that the act applies to those over 16 years of age, where in England the term vulnerable adult is defined for those over the age of 18 and for the requirement under the statute is that all of the three elements are met for a person to be deemed at risk. ADASS too supports the use of risk as the basis of adult protection, although its definition differs from the one used in Scotland. It states that an adult at risk is one who is or may be eligible for community care services and whose independence and wellbeing are at risk due to abuse or neglect (ADASS, 2005) The ASPSA (2007) act The Scottish Code of Practice states that no category of harm is excluded simply because it is not explicitly listed. In general terms, behaviours that constitute harm to others can be physical (including neglect), emotional, financial, sexual or a combination of these. Also, what constitutes serious harm will be different for different persons. (Scottish Government, 2008a p13). In defining what constitutes significant harm, No Secrets (2000) uses the definition of significant harm in who decides? No Secrets defines significant harm as:- harm should be taken to include not only ill treatment (including sexual abuse and forms of ill treatment which are not physical), but also the impairment of, or an unavoidable deterioration in, physical or mental health; and the impairment of physical, intellectual, emotional, social or behavioural developments (No Secrets, 2000. The ASPA (2007) act also goes onto detail that any intervention in an individuals affairs should provide benefit to the individual, and should be the least restrictive option of those that are available thus providing a safety net on the principles of the act (ASPA, 2007). The Adult Support and Protection (Scotland) Act 2007 says: harm includes all harmful conduct and, in particular, includes: conduct which causes physical harm; conduct which causes psychological harm (e.g. by causing fear, alarm or distress) unlawful conduct which appropriates or adversely affects property, rights or interests (e.g. theft, fraud, embezzlement or extortion) conduct which causes self-harm N.B conduct includes neglect and other failures to act, which includes actions which are not planned or deliberate, but have harmful consequences Interestingly the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (section 44) introduced a new criminal offence of ill treatment and wilful neglect of a person who lacks capacity to make a relevant decision. It does not matter whether the behaviour toward the person was likely to cause or actually caused harm or damage to the victims health. Although the Mental Capacity Act mainly relates to adults 16 and over, Section 44 can apply to all age groups including children (Code of Practice Mental Capacity Act 2005). The Association of Directors of Social Services (ADSS) published a National Framework of Standards to attempt to reduce variation across the country (ADSS 2005). In this document the ADSS 2005 updated this definition above to :- every adult who is or may be eligible for community care services, facing a risk to their independence (ADSS 2005 para 1.14). England and Scotland differences with policy/legislation Definition of vulnerability Three part definition to definition of at risk of harm Harm might be caused by another person or the person may be causing the harm themselves no category of harm is excluded simply because it is not explicitly listed. In general terms, behaviours that constitute harm to others can be physical (including neglect), emotional, financial, sexual, or a combination of these. Also, what constitutes serious harm will be different for different persons. Code of Practice, Scottish Government (2008) Defining vulnerable: adult safeguarding in England and Wales Greater level of contestation in defining VA in adults than children. Doucuments in wales and England are very similar. In safe hands document is greater but both are issued under the provision of section 7. Whilst they are guidance, there is a statutory footing behind them. No Secrets (DH2000) defines vulnerable in a particular way: Is a person who is or may be in need of community care services by reason of mental or other disability, age or illness; and who is or may be unable to take care of him or herself, or unable to protect him or herself against significant harm or exploitation. No Secrets paragraph 2.3 Lord Chancellors Department, Who Decides (1995) The ASP Act introduces new adult protection duties and powers, including: Councils duty to inquire and investigate Duty to co-operate Duty to consider support services such as independent advocacy Other duties and powers visits, interviews, examinations Protection Orders: assessment, removal, banning and temporary banning Warrants for Entry, Powers of Arrest and Offences Duty to establish Adult Protection Committees across Scotland Harm includes all harmful conduct and, in particular, includes: a) conduct which causes physical harm; b) conduct which causes psychological harm (for example: by causing fear, alarm or distress); c) unlawful conduct which appropriates or adversely affects property, rights or interests (for example: theft, fraud; embezzlement or extortion); and d) conduct which causes self-harm. An adult is at risk of harm if: another persons conduct is causing (or is likely to cause) the adult to be harmed, or the adult is engaging (or is likely to engage) in conduct which causes (or is likely to cause) self-harm N.B conduct includes neglect and other failures to act (Section 53)
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Did you know, Ã¢â¬Å"men and women talk differently because they are raised in something like two different cultures: a male culture from which young men learn to speak like men and a female culture in which young women learn to speak like women?Ã¢â¬ (Cooper and MacDonald 9). Well, not actually from two separate cultures, but the idea of men and women being opposites as pointed out in the opening. Deborah Tannen has made her theory that a male culture and female culture each exist, very popular with the human population and has written an extensive book on her theory. To define these communication conundrums, Tannen discusses Ã¢â¬Å"rapport-talkÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"report-talkÃ¢â¬ . She defines Ã¢â¬Å"rapport-talkÃ¢â¬ as Ã¢â¬Å"For most women, the language of conversation is primarily a language of rapport: a way of establishing connections and negotiating relationshipsÃ¢â¬ (Cooper and MacDonald 10). Rapport-talk has its strong points focused on showing similarities and matching experiences. Women choose private speaking as the best places for communication. They like small settings and small groups of people that they know well. Tannen uses Ã¢â¬Å"report-talkÃ¢â¬ to explain how men communicate. Ã¢â¬Å"Report-talkÃ¢â¬ is Ã¢â¬Å"For most men, talk is primarily a means to preserve independence and negotiate and maintain status in a hierarchical social orderÃ¢â¬ (Cooperand MacDonald 10). Men choose to communicate in public settings, they like to hold center stage by talking as much as possible and to be recognized and acknowledged as h aving a place in th...
People’s rewards are determined based on their actions. The fact that Shylock is not merciful to Antonio and that he is hateful towards the Christians, has resulted in him losing his possessions. Bassanio not only helps Antonio, but is also wise and being wed to Portia is his reward. Antonio gives money to Bassanio and is willing to die for his friend and his reward is his life. The particular actions and decisions made by Shylock, Antonio and Bassanio causes them to reap the benefits or misfortunes of their behavior. Shylock is one of the more evil characters, who shows no mercy and is robbed of his possessions for these deeds. Shylock is not merciful towards Antonio’s situation and he does not care for his life. When Shylock is about to take a pound of flesh from Antonio, Portia asks for a doctor to help Antonio with his wound. All Shylock can say about this is, “I cannot find it; ‘tis not in the bond.'; (IV i 260). He does not care for Antonio’s life. Not only does Shylock hate Antonio, but he also hates all Christians. He shows this when he says, “I hate him for he is Christian';(I iii 39). He is almost basing his whole dislike for Antonio on his religion. Shylock’s cruelty causes him to be punished. Portia tells him, “Thou hast contrived against the very life / Of the defendant; and thou hast incurred / The danger formally by me rehearsed';(IV i 358). Shylock’s cruelty towards Antonio and his prejudice against Christians results in his punishmen t by the law. Bassanio uses his wisdom to wed Portia and he courageously helps Antonio. His reward is having Portia’s hand in marriage. Bassanio is willing to give up his life for Antonio. When he says “Good cheer, Antonio! What, man, courage yet! / The Jew shall have my flesh, blood, bones, and all, / Ere thou shalt lose for me one drop of blood.'; (IV i 111) He is saying he appreciates Antonio’s courage for him, but he also says Shylock will have to take his flesh, blood, bones and all before he can get at Antonio. Bassanio’s love for his wife is shown by his reluctance to give up his wedding ring. When Bassanio says, “Good sir, this ring was given me by my wife, / And when she put it on, she made me vow / That I should neither sell nor give nor lose it.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Writing From a Technical Standpoint At first, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really understand the concept of this assignment. I thought, this is going to be pretty easy. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll just get some glue, and write some words on a piece of construction paper. After all, glue is just sugar and water, and paper is just a treeÃ¢â¬âsounds natural enough! However, after I sat down and thought about it, glue and paper are far from natural. Someone mixed the glue, put it into a container, and shipped it to the store. The paper was made from a tree; but technology, machinery, and people were essential to its existence. Therefore, I needed to put my brain to work and find something untouched by man, technology, or machinery. How about grass, cement, dirt, and water? All of these elements seemed pretty natural to me, so I ventured into my front yard and started making words out of water from my hose onto the driveway. Then I realized someone mixed that cement and laid itÃ¢â¬âunnatural. The water has been channeled to my hose from some typ e of technologyÃ¢â¬âunnatural. My dad planted the grass; the dirt was bought from the store, and laid in front of my house by my mother; man planted all the trees. I realized my project had to be conducted where humans had not interfered. For example, if I used water, I would have to travel to a natural source of water like a lake or ocean. If I wanted to use trees or grass, I would have to find them in a natural setting like a forest or woods. And thatÃ¢â¬â¢s just what I did. I went to the woods not far from my house, and I searched around looking for an easy way to create something as simple as a word. I then came upon themÃ¢â¬âdandelions. Man has not planted these Ã¢â¬Å"weedsÃ¢â¬ ; rather, they have grown out of the ground Ã¢â¬Å"naturallyÃ¢â¬ . Not only were the dandelions quick and easy to use, they were also kind of pretty! Although the woods would be considered a natural setting, the grass I use for my project was not necessarily the most Ã¢â¬Å"naturalÃ¢â¬ substance. It seemed to me that someone had planted that grass, and mowed it frequently, because it was very short and level. But the dandelions worked out wonderfully.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
How can we envision an ecological restoration of both physical environment and philosophical/spiritual thought models? Overpopulation, overexploitation, and human consumption are all contributing to the downfall of our now extremely misused planet. All organisms are now being exposed to drastic environmental changes, ones that our ancestors have never experienced. The stability of the Earth has been decreasing severely in the past few centuries because of mankindÃ¢â¬â¢s impact on overusing and consuming resources. Fundamental for EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to function, natural resources across the globe are being destroyed and many contribute to the atmospheric change. A major issue is the lack of awareness of the current problems along with the absence of drive towards maintenance and restoration of the planet. Many humans view Earth as just a place to live, a place where selfishness takes hold, and careless consumption and waste thrives. We must ask ourselves, as a whole, at what point in time did our values of the Earth change? And how did we ever allow ourselves to become selfish, independent, and careless human beings? Unlike previous ecological and earth spiritualties that promoted and influenced all people to care for the Earth, we now take advantage of our planet for our own needs. Instead of love and protection, greed and exploitation now motivate us. At one point in time, ecological ideologies were a threshold for many beliefs because of the interconnectedness with all beings and the idea that everything is living and necessary for the planetÃ¢â¬â¢s survival. Maintaining a healthy balance with the mind, body, spirit, and environment has allowed generations of humans to thrive in our world. But, somewhere along the evolutional journey of mankind, we have slowly lost these concepts and values. In order to Ã¢â¬Å"succeedÃ¢â¬ we have to make the most money in order to be superior, instead of being happy with what you have. The mentality, especially in Western culture, is that we live to work, not work to live. The drive to be happy lies within work and money, but how many people, especially in the United States can say they are happy with their lives? It is because we lost the connection with the Earth, if we are connected with nature, peace will fulfill our lives. Reverting to previous mentalities and philosophies is instrumental in our restoration of the Earth. Building a better place to live, both physically and mentally, starts with analyzing past spiritualties and converting to some of their widespread ideas. Loving, respecting, and caring for the world is a concept seen in the practices of Gaia, Shamanism, Dark Green, Buddhist, and Hindu religions. Exemplifying the human connectedness with the environment, while seeing nature as a living being is a tradition that must be restored. The religions and ideologies illustrate peace, awareness, and balance within every relationship, including self. Adapting to these spiritualties will be beneficial across the globe, it will aid in our survival as well as the planets. Even though these models may seem far off, difficult, and unattainable, we must strive to change because it is vital for our existence. Presently, a common attitude that has been expressed is that nature is severely flawed, and that there is not much we can do to restore Earth. But, it is mankindÃ¢â¬â¢s duty to attempt the change and fix the environment as well as our philosophies behind it. New fields of study have been created like conservation biology and restoration ecology, which practice saving and fixing ecosystems across our biosphere. Movements in scientific fields as well as other environmental programs now strive to restore the Earth back to a plentiful state, with natural resources in tact to enable future generations to live. We must also think deeper about the current state of the Earth, considering all answers to how we got this way. Our future depends on whether or not humans can become mindful of our planet, to see clearly what is wrong and cause no further harm. Through this, we need to restore previous ideologies to help our new route of success. Living simply, awareness, respect, compassion, and love are key components to functioning in what our new world should become. Tracing the earliest environmental concepts back to the era of Greeks, Romans, and early pagan practices, the earth spiritualty Gaia played a vital role in their customs. Gaia is centered on the understanding that humans are not physical beings having a spiritual experience, but we are spiritual beings having a physical experience. It is a broad and open-minded spiritualty, and focuses on humanityÃ¢â¬â¢s connection with the Earth. Certain beliefs are that the planet is an ancient, living, and self-regulating system and we must do our part by not affecting such an essential being in our lives. Similarly, Mother Earth, humans, and all beings must have a deep, strong, and balanced relationship. It is illustrated that Gaia itself, is a symbol of peaceful balance between life and time. Ensuring that humans have a duty to protect, care, and respect the Earth because it is what gave us life inexorably. Envisioning Gaia as a concept used for ecological restoration of the environment and restoration of philosophical and spiritual views is an easy notion, which should be set into place. Since the philosophies of Gaia believe that humans have the ability to maintain EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s homeostasis, we should be inspired to embrace what our role should be in the planet. Due to most individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ self interest and greed, our actions are continually contributing to the change in the climate. But, in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, if Gaia was a wide spread concept, individuals would have the ability to decide what sort of relationship they would have with the Earth. Taking such initiative to save and respect the planet will attract millions of followers. Gaia spirituality is an ideal change worth striving towards, since we recognize that Earth is a network of interacting components that shape each other, we need to reduce the impacts affecting these elements. Beings and the planet need to co-evo lve, and life needs to stabilize the planet in order to survive. Many other spiritual practices similar to Gaia involve exercises where followers strive to reach a certain state of consciousness that allows them to view the world in a different light. A well-known practice is Shamanism, which exemplifies reaching such a level of consciousness and allowing the practitioner to have access to other worlds. Shamans are guides to humans in our world, leading us through concepts from the spirit world. Since shamans contact both malicious and benevolent spirits, they view the world in a certain way that most humans are unable to. As shamans begin their ritual to other worlds, they enter a trance where they are placed in positions as messengers and healers from the spirits. Within healing, shamans treat the body through fixing the soul and restoring humans back to a healthy balance. Shamans build strong relationships with all animals and living beings in order to help them fully understand nature and its ways. Many of Shamanistic beliefs are that humans are directly affected with the treatment of the environment, and shamans can teach us about our wrongful actions. They guide us through the spirits to give us answers about our life mishaps and questions. Shamans consume the responsibility to care for all beings in order to better suite our world. Followers of Shamanism practice the importance of what you take from the world, you must give back and give thanks. Traditionally, shaman practices highlight how much they are ecologists of tribal societies. The rituals, trances, and journeys guarantee the relationship between humans and other beings are balanced (Barnhill 200) and remain so. Approaching a similar system to Shamanism will be a worthwhile effort because of the environmental aspects. They stress the avoidance of overhunting and overexploitation of resources by setting restrictions through their daily lives. Managing resources is tradition we do not do currently, but one we must become accustomed to, along with respect and compassion to restore a balance in the world. Being the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s third largest religion and one of the oldest, Hinduism has always been a massive threshold for peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs. More importantly in Hinduism is the fundamental ecological spirituality that attracts so many followers. Both the thought models and motives for the environment are what drive the religion. Promoting peace and a natural demeanor towards all living things is a major theme, but in the foundation there are truly many concepts that are vital. The beauty seen in Hinduism is that the Earth is interconnected, that everything is a complete entity. HinduÃ¢â¬â¢s terminology for the Earth is a superior factor and if applied it could be beneficial for restoration of the world. Advaita/Monism (Lal 190) implies that everyone and everything is one, there is no division in life, and Brahman (Lal 191) means the principle of the cosmos, that everything has a meaning and structure. Similar to Brahman is Atman (Lal 190), which applies to humans and is the spiritual essence of man. For Hinduism, all beings go through life cycles known as reincarnation or Samsara (Lal 192), and through each life beings strive towards developing into more complex forms. It is ruled through karma, which regulates the cause and effect of how you live and if you will move on to a better form of life. The life energy, Kundalini (Lal 190), represents the awakening of the mind to understand all matters in living. Ultimately, HinduÃ¢â¬â¢s goal for the humanÃ¢â¬â¢s spirituality is to move from self-centeredness and unenlightened to a self-less and enlightened person. Balance of mind, body, and spirit rules Hinduism, and to reach that many followers live simply in all ways, which benefits their bodies as well as their surroundings. Hinduism emphasizes sacred geography; their belief is that Earth nurtures humans so we have to give back by protecting and respecting the land. Since Hinduism is most apparent in India, they have adapted the term Bharat-ma, or Mother India, which is a holy site and used for ecological progress. The land in India is sacred, even if it is polluted and destroyed; they still have a deep love for all of the land, which is an important aspect, that most other countries lack. Furthermore, Ahimsa (Lal 190) is the extremity of non-violence and a complete consciousness that all living beings have the right to live and thrive. Adapting to Hinduism would make a beautiful change to the Earth. Land and water would be treated respectfully, eventually cleansing the atmosphere along with slowing climate change. Although their concepts of Earth are ideal and something we should model our lives after, it may be questioned if it is something even attainable and if we can reverse the effects already done to the Earth and ourselves. The green spirituality of Hinduism can make drastic changes to the current state of the Earth, and would help purify humans to a more balanced and healthy self. Mindfulness, nonviolence, and self-awareness (Kozak 5) have an influential role on the rising popularity of Buddhism. The primary philosophy of Buddhism is that it is spiritual not religious, it is a way of life, striving to improve the human mind, body, and spirit. As global perspectives change and people attune to having some sort of awareness, masses of humans are becoming more attracted to becoming Buddhist and living such lifestyles. Due to the fact that Buddhism is not an organized religion, but an ideology of leading a moral life, awareness of thoughts and actions, and to develop understanding and wisdom in the search for Enlightenment (Kozak 24) is what fascinates many people. Living is suffering for true Buddhists and once an individual reaches enlightenment, they can be free from the suffering of the world. Similar to Hinduism, Buddhism also believes in reincarnation, in their version the soul is always migrating into other worlds and death is nothing to fear because it determines what world you go into in the next life. The practice of Buddhism requires three things from man; self-mastery, self-analysis, and the cultivation of empathy (Kozak 262). Self-mastery involves looking at oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self, paying attention to who you are, and decreasing greed. Self-analysis contains minimizing resources including needs and wants, and practices restraint in all aspects of life. The cultivation of empathy implies that one must have understanding towards all beings and if done, they will become gentle, patient, and calm, which will contribute to their enlightenment goal. Empathy among humans, animals, plants, and all organisms entails dissolving fear and to question what is right and wrong. Buddhism teaches worship and respect for the environment, emphasizing the fluidity of nature and life. Buddhism is a tradition that offers help to our world that is experiencing rapid and destructive change (Lancaster 3). If Buddhism was taught and practiced across the globe, people would understand the importance of nature and how it plays a vital role in our lives. Nature and all of its resources are being depleted at an astounding rate, and the practice of the Buddha would influence the globe to respect and restore our environment. If practiced, corporations and governments would no longer strive to make the most money and have the most influence, because quality not quantity matters in our environment and globally we would understand that concept. Recently, a radically growing religion across the globe is the Dark Green Religion, which holds their beliefs in nature, spirituality and our futures. This Ã¢â¬Å"religionÃ¢â¬ is actually a religion-resembling set of ideologies and practices that focuses on the holiness of nature and relationships with everything on the planet. Primarily, their belief is that nature is sacred with an intrinsic value, meaning that it should be demanded respect and care. Similar to most earth spiritualties, the relationship with human, and non-humans is highlighted, along with the consciousness of the connections of all life on the planet. Dark Green religions are common in all environmentalist movements, especially the surfing culture and all nature-based spiritualties. A common theme is the acceptance of perspectival thinking- where there is no truth, no objectivity, and no absolute value. Accepting perspectival thinking would give all humans the power to understand the affects we are having on our planet. We would always be searching for the deeper meaning of things and questioning what is the right way to live. This theory can be seen predated before Christianity, and it used to focus on seeing and interpreting nature in a respectful and beautiful way. The attitude is that humans, other organisms, and Earth are one unity with a greater power in control. Before long, Christianity covered up these beliefs and hid the real meaning of life. But as culture changes once again, we can see how these set of beliefs are making their way to the forefront of the environmental movement. Promoting that nature has the ability to have rights and the expectation that people have to uphold these rights would ensure respect to ripple throughout the world. By following these rights, nature would be allowed to restore itself, and ecosystems could be balanced once again. The balance of nature would continually benefit humans through ecosystem services of the land. Restoring old philosophical and spiritual thought models may seem impossible, but since new philosophies have arisen in past years that mirror older values and beliefs, they are attracting numerous amounts of followers. A growing philosophy that is not only a belief system but also a set of actions, also known as praxis, is Eco-philosophy also known as Deep Ecology. This praxis presents the idea that humans are not the center of all things, but simply a part of all things. Two major focuses of Deep Ecology are self-realization and ecocentrism (Scarce 31). The realization of self emphasizes the consciousness of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s perception must be extended beyond their own aspects of life and must include the environment in their life. Ecocentrism is the basis that everything involved with nature possesses intrinsic worth and value. Deep EcologyÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas are based off of old philosophies beliefs, common themes in Deep Ecology reflect Buddhism, Hinduism, Dark Green religions , and Gaia. Harmony with nature, nature having intrinsic worth, living simply with small material needs, minimal consumption, and awareness that supplies on earth are limited all oppose modern day Western beliefs, but come from a religious and community based background (Scarce 37). Those who follow Deep Ecology are also known as radical environmentalists, they have a strong bond between themselves and the environment that spurs their actions; they are always tied back to the Earth. The realization that humans are mere aspects, on the same level as plants, animals, and bugs, is something that could change our world. A change in an individual requires a change in the culture so other citizens can follow suit. A massive shift of lifestyle is needed to make the difference, living simply and practically through gardening, awareness of choices, and being selfless are what is vital for success in humanity. Quicker than expected, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population is nearing ten billion, and our current depletion of food, energy, water, and natural resources is still expanding at a rate that no longer can be maintained. Overcoming these issues will be an extremely difficult task because governments, corporations, and everything between have ignorance about their own greed. Ignorance, greed, and hatred are toxic for the world, and they highlight how our state of the Earth became so detrimental. Awareness to the reality of the situation is questionable; mankind needs to have courage to alter our ways. Social change will always occur, but government and corporate leaders have to have the bravery of leading the world cleanly and with complete mindfulness. When talking about environmental restoration and preservation, the Dalai Lama once said, Ã¢â¬Å"Ultimately, the decision must come from the human heart. The key point is to have a genuine sense of universal responsibility, based on love and com passion, and clean awarenessÃ¢â¬ . Nature is at the very heart of our being and spirituality, it is our duty to prevent further destruction. If we continue to live as we have been without thinking of the future, we will continue to destroy natural resources, emit greenhouse gases, and climate change will then be inevitable. Climate change means a drastic shift in sea water levels because of ice caps melting, and millions of people will be forced out of their homes because coastal cities will be destroyed. Oceans will warm; natural disasters will take place such as droughts, floods, and heat waves, they will destroy our agriculture and homes and will hinder mankindÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to thrive. Control and safety from danger and destructiveness is what humanity strives to create in our culture. Even though control may be helpful for humans to flourish, we are wasting precious opportunities to become closer to nature and all that it has to offer. Studying and introducing ourselves back into the environment will be beneficial for the entire planet. Humans have altered the balance of the planet; to restore prior thought models involves the practice of no longer picturing ourselves as the center of the universe but seeing all inhabitants of the universe and the necessary role they play in our lives. It is natural for one person to believe that they cannot make a difference in the world, but belief, hope, determination, and courage will alter the planet. The process of restoring the physical world will be a step-by-step process, not one person can save the entire Earth, but they can give their full energy to help certain causes. Restoration of the environment and spiritual thought models intertwine. If it takes a person to have a bad experience to spur them towards changing their lifestyle and beliefs, then that is what must happen. Being submissive, listening to authorities and government leaders causes our world to be full of non-believers; humans do not trust their feelings and intuition (Scarce 34). Cultures across the world have fallen into the notion that they must be told what is right or wrong, especially through science and technology because they create certifiable Ã¢â¬Å"truthÃ¢â¬ . Banishing this manifestation will allow people to once again search for knowledge and answers. That is the beauty behind philosophy, everyone searches for knowledge and truth but there may never be real and certain truths. Accepting this idea will allow mankind to realize that nature is too complex to ever be completely and fully understood, so we should respect all that it is. To change our current ecological status both physically and spiritually, many steps must be taken. Most importantly, personal and community based engagement must be taken in the environment. Compassion, interdependence, and inter-being with the world will provide a philosophic platform (Storhoff and Whalen-Bridge 113) that will radiate across the globe and improve our spiritual beings. Western hemisphere ideologies must be radically different. Currently, our ethics and cultural perceptions that influence our actions of modes of thinking (Lancaster 9) are affecting our ways of living. The perception that people who are good, moral, ethical, and worthy are supposed to give help to the poor and oppressed, instead of aiding all classes as well as the environment. In other words, in our communities, we now aid to the Ã¢â¬Å"needy and unworthyÃ¢â¬ but in reality, we should be more focused on the global community. Nature is not separate from us, so it is what we should be aiding. Nature is the fundamental existential context of our lives, and we have a responsibility to aid and participate in it as a community (Barnhill 188), just as we would to the needy. Cultural transmission is the key to restoring our ecology; we need to form a new society within the shell of our current one. Instead of being centered on industry and technology, we need to focus on the physical and spiritual self-being of the world. Ideally, a world formed around Buddhist and Hindu traditions would benefit all beings, but during the cultivation of societies, humanity lost those ideals. Primarily, the first step to restoration would be individual change; each person would need to alter their lifestyles and values based off of certain ecological and earth spiritualties. If this were to happen, the transformation of individuals would affect their families, then to communities, to culture, and eventually global change. It may not be an immediate, imminent change, but slowly the acceptance, respect, and love for nature would spread to everyone in the world. Having a total integrated life style with the environment would allow awareness of self-interdependence with the globe, and how our actions affect all beings. Deep ecological awareness is an ideology that in a resolute ecocentric view, we would be able to reorganize our societies around the laws of nature (Lal 193). Ecological consciousness comes from the heart, not the head (Scarce 31), we need to become compassionate to everyone and everything. Adapting to earth religions would allow our values of the earth to change, because it compromises all life and the entire environment to be one entity that we all belong to in a single community. If we cannot adapt to a single religion or spirituality, we may only need to adapt to single expressions and practices of these ideologies, which will support the change of our ethical norms and values in the postmodern era. Works Cited Barnhill, David Landis. Deep Ecology and World Religions: New Essays on Sacred Grounds. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001. Kozak, Arnold. The Everything Buddhism Book. 2nd ed. Avon, Mass.: Adams Media, 2011. Lal, Vinay. Hinduism and ecology: the intersection of earth, sky, and water. Cambridge, MA: Distributed by Harvard University Press for the Center for the Study of World Religions, Harvard Divinity School, 2000. Lancaster, Lewis. Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Center for the Study of World Religions :, 1997. Lovelock, James. Healing Gaia: practical medicine for the planet. New York: Harmony Books, 1991. Scarce, Rik. Eco-Warriors: Understanding the Radical Environmental Movement. Chicago: Noble Press, 1990. Storhoff, Gary, and John Whalen-Bridge. American Buddhism as a way of life. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2010. Print.