Sunday, March 31, 2019

Metacognitive Awareness Of Reading Strategies And Critical Reading

Metacognitive Aw arness Of rendition Strategies And unfavorable trainingResearchers debate that cognisance and monitoring of anes wisdom processes are scathingly historic for dexterous meter see. Such ken and monitoring processes are often referred to as metacognition. late(a) enquiryes show that metacognitive strategies variediate among effective and ineffective watch overers i.e. the more a student get laids around how he learns, the better he volition learn. This subject was designed to investigate the birth amidst metacognitive awareness of encyclopaedism strategies and hyper sarcastic discipline energy of the students. To this end, 113 third/forth year Iranian college students major(ip)ing in face edition/ books, aged around 21-36 were selected to dismantleicipate in this t to severally oneing. They took part in a Nelson political campaign of development, and a detailed practice perception interrogation. They as well completed a questionna ire, namely Metacognitive sensation of edition Strategies inventorying (MARSI). Data analysis through Pearson Correlation Coefficient formula showed that on that point is a signifi scum bagt race amid the students metacognitive awareness of development strategies and their sarcastic interlingual rendition king. The harnessings after part lap implications for EFL learners and t distributivelyers in developing an authentic, inter subroutineive and learner- centered purlieu in their teaching classes.Key words Learning strategies, Metacognition, Metacognitive awareness of information material strategies, Critical narration1. IntroductionThe recent years make up witnessed an change magnitude interest in developing critical scene process skills of students in give to improve their thought and learning abilities and help them to succeed in their educational goals. Improving students critical thinking skills leave behind help studentsa) improve their thinking most their human body workb) wasting disease sound thinking on tests, assignments, and projects in their runsc) defend the strategic, analytical, fuss solving, and decision-making skills they collect when they are at colleged) have the strategic, analytical, worry solving, and decision-making skills they need when they move to the workplace.The term critical thinking when utilize by educators has varied meanings in unalike con textbooks-whether in formal system of logical system courses, where it has a precise meaning when applied to financial statements or in everyday discussions in a faculty lounge close to students struggles to grasp the course matter, where the term is character more loosely to simply mean tidy thinking (Pierce, 2005). Before proceeding any further, an account will be entrustd as how critical thinking has been defined in literatureAs stated by Thomson (1996), the critical thinking tradition, which derives from both philosophy and education, originat es in the USA. Some of its fore around Ameri green goddess proponents were John Dewey, Edward Glaser, and Steven Norris in Britain, the name near closely associated with critical thinking is that of Alec Fisher.In Learning to Think disciplinary Perspectives (2002), Janet Donald (quoted in Keller 2008) precedes a variety of approaches to thinking establish on the work of different academic disciplines. She provides a working model of thinking processes in higher(prenominal) education in which she describes a perspective on different methods of inquiry. The working model offers a ar range of a function of procedures followed by most disciplines, including description, selection, representation, inference, synthesis, and verification. down the stairs each topic on this inventory, then, she lists subtopics indicating their relation to the diverse inquiry methods she previously connected to academic areas. In a later summary of the most important thinking processes used world-wide ly across disciplines, she lists separately depict the context and State assumptions, then reduces her previous set of common procedures to those of selection, representation, and synthesis.In Maclellan and Soden (2001, quoted in Keller 2008), we see the interest set of critical thinking skillsa) invite outing concepts- cleverness to unpack or break down ideas, concepts or theoriesb) recognizing contradictions-differentiating between viewpoints and counterargumentsc) development-explaining a phenomenon, connective ideas together to form lines of argumentsd) providing evidence-supporting or in force(p)ifying assertionse) examining implications of evidence-generating hypotheses somewhat consequences or examining the alliances between let out factorsf) alter primordial interpretation-questioning or challenging an interpretation of the evidence and offering an alternative. aft(prenominal) the above review on what critical thinking is, now we exploit to critical course session. A major issue in education straightaway is the concern about students exponent to read critically and to evaluate the material. Critical practice session is taught as a sub-skill of lore with appropriate exercises. Critical indi nominatet enjoys some(prenominal) features which make it appear rooted in critical thinking. Among the features we usher out mention the followings listed by students counseling service of Salisbury Universitya. previewing Learning about a text before really interpret it.b. contextualizing Placing a text in its historical, biographical, and cultural contexts.c. questioning to find out and remember Asking questions about the content.d. reflecting on challenges to your beliefs and values Examining your personal responses.e. outlining and summarizing Identifying the main ideas and restating them in your own words.f. evaluating an argument Testing the logic of a text as well as its credibility and emotional impact.g. comparing and contrasting cogitate drills Exploring likenesses and differences between texts to understand them better.Furthermore, Burmeister (1986, qtd in Cherney 1986) defines critical-creative instruction and thinking as requiring the skills of analysis, synthesis and paygrade. He adds that much(prenominal) cognitive abilities require readers or thinkers to reason using techniques of formal logic or at least to be consciously aware of the thought processes they are using. Analysis, check to Burmeister, requires the examination of parts of the whole synthesis is the act of combining or unifying elements into a coherent whole and evaluation requires the establishment of standards and alike a judgment as to the goodness of add together of the idea. Burmeister considers evaluation to be the highest level of the cognitive domain. (p.256)The research workers assume that metacognitive strategies are among the strategies which can foster critical thinking and hence reading. However, it sounds reasonable to ask w hy such a relationship is felt. To firmness of purpose this question an attempt will be made to clarify metacognitive strategies.Sheorey and Mokhtari (2001) state that many a(prenominal) studies recognize the design of meta-cognitive awareness in reading comprehension, whether one is reading in the native style or a second oral communication. Indeed, the consensus view is that strategic awareness and monitoring of the comprehension process are critically important aspects of practiced reading. Such awareness and monitoring is often referred to in the literature as meta-cognition, which can be thought of as the companionship of the readers cognition relative to the reading process and the self-control mechanisms they use to monitor and enhance comprehension. Auerbach and Paxton (1997) and booth et al. (1989), for deterrent example, consider meta-cognitive awareness-planning and consciously executing appropriate actions to achieve a detail goal-to be a critical element of p roficient, strategic reading. Such meta-cognition, according to Auerbach and Paxton (1997), entails friendship of strategies for processing texts, the superpower to monitor comprehension, and the ability to ad dear strategies as needed (pp. 240-41).Furthermore, Taylor (1999) defines meta-cognition as an appreciation of what one already knows, together with a correct apprehension of the learning task and what familiarity and skills it requires, combined with the ability to make correct inferences about how to apply ones strategic knowledge to a particular situation, and to do so efficiently and reliably. (p.126)To increase their metacognitive abilities, students need to deliver and be aware of three kinds of content knowledge declarative, procedural, and conditional. Declarative knowledge is the factual entropy that one knows it can be declared-spoken or written. An example is to know the formula for calculating momentum in a natural philosophy class (momentum = atomic reactor times velocity). Procedural knowledge is knowledge of how to do both(prenominal)thing, of how to perform the steps in a process for example, knowing the mass of an object and its rate of speed and how to do the calculation. Conditional knowledge is knowledge about when to use a procedure, skill, or strategy and when non to use it why a procedure works and under what conditions and why one procedure is better than a nonher. For example, students need to recognize that an exam word problem requires the calculation of momentum as part of its solution. (Paris, Cross and Lipson, 1984. qtd. in Pressley 2002).This arbitrariness of three kinds of knowledge applies to learning strategies as well as course content. When they field of honor, students need the declarative knowledge that (1) all reading assignments are not alike for example, that a history textbook chapter deals with factual information differs from a primary historical document, which is different from an article interpret ing or analyzing that document. They need to know that stories and novels differ from arguments. Furthermore, they need to know that there are different kinds of note victorious strategies useful for annotating these different types of texts. And (2) students need to know how to actually write different kinds of notes (procedural knowledge), and (3) they need to know when to apply these kinds of notes when they take aim (conditional knowledge). Knowledge of probe strategies is among the kinds of meta-cognitive knowledge, and it too requires awareness of all three kinds of knowledge (Pierce, 2003).Many of the current studies recognize the role of awareness in reading comprehension. interpreting strategies are of interest for the way readers use them to manage their interaction with the written text and how these strategies are related to text comprehension (Rigney, 1978).Reading in second language reading suggests that strategies improve reading comprehension. Reading strategie s indicate how readers conceive a task, how they make sense of what they read and what they do when reading comprehension is difficult (Singhal, 2001).Indeed researchers agree that strategic awareness and monitoring of the comprehension process are critically important aspects of mean reading. Such awareness and monitoring is often referred to in the literature as metacognition, which is used to monitor and enhance reading comprehension (Pressley and Afflerbach, 1995 Alexander and Jetton, 2000 Pressley, 2000). fresh researchers (Cohen, 1998, Anderson, 2002, Santana, 2003) show that the strategies that mark the true differences between effective and ineffective learners are the metacognitive strategies. In spite of the fact that many of the previous studies have obtained information about learners strategies and reading process, few of them have examined readers metacognitive awareness of reading strategies ( Singhal, 2001).Considering the important role of metacognitive reading str ategies in reading comprehension with suspicious eye, this teaching is designed to investigate the relationship between metacognitive awareness reading strategies and critical reading ability and to view the notions of meta-cognitive awareness strategies and critical reading in the same horizon. For this purpose, we also need to have references to critical thinking because, as was mentioned above, critical reading roots in critical thinking.1. 1. recital of the problemFor the improvement of critical reading, instructors should teach a variety of strategies that research has shown to be effective, like generating questions and dissolventing them, writing summaries, writing elaborations and using organizing strategies. The preceding strategies already seem to have been taken into account by Iranian teachers and learners.However, a potential problem in applying the mentioned strategies in reading comprehension can be the absence of meta-cognitive awareness about them. Hence, the res earcher assumes that a set of meta-cognitive strategies can strengthen the above line of activity and foster the mount of critical reading.1. 2. Research QuestionIs there any significant relationship between metacognitive awareness of reading strategies and critical reading ability?3. Statement of the hypothesisThe null hypothesis underlying this proposal is that there is not any significant relationship between meta-cognitive awareness of reading strategies and critical reading ability.2. Method2. 1. ParticipantsA community sample of one hundred thirty manly and female participated in this reflect in the second semester of 2010 majoring in side language literature and translation in Qom Islamic Azad University. They were all in their third and forth year. These students were asked if they would volunteer to participate in the contemplate. Out of 130 participants who completed the questionnaires and tests, about 113 participants were accepted to participate in the make.2. 2. M easure and functionThe researchers visited the classes to administer one questionnaire and two tests. A total of 130 students were instructed to answer the proficiency test in one session and to the critical reading test and MARSI questionnaire at a later session. Students rated the items of MARSI, using a 5-point likert-type plateful ranging from 1 (I never do this) to 5 (I always do this). From this population, some students were eliminated because they had not properly completed their questionnaires.The general proficiency test (Nelson test, three hundred B) comprised 50 multiple- prime(prenominal) and wording items. The total do of the test was 50 and one point was assigned to each correct answer.The critical reading comprehension test consisted of quatern exits with 4 or 5 multiple-choice items for each release. So the 20 items were scored by one point for each correct answer. Then the score for all items were added and an ultimate score was calculated. The range of he aps for this test was between 9 to 18.For scoring the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory, the procedure proposed by Mokhtari Richad (2002) was used. A score was assigned to each answer which ranged from 1 to 5 never or almost never=1, from time to time=2, sometimes=3, usually=4, always=5. Then the scores for all items were added up and an ultimate score was calculated. The range of scores for this scale was between 46 to 146.3. Data analysisTo carry out the statistical analysis of the study, several statistical techniques were utilized to calculate the dependableness of the Nelson test, the Cronbach alpha (a) formula was utilized.In order to estimate the dependableness of the critical reading comprehension test, the Cronbach alpha (a) formula was utilized. Considering the point that the participants will be assigned interval scores both for their meta-cognitive awareness and critical reading ability, the statistical analysis was Pearsons crossing Moment Co efficient of Correlation.Also, the reliability ability of the translated adjustment of MARSI was rateed by applying Cronbach alpha (a) formula.after administrating the instruments with the main subjects of the study and correcting the papers, the ultimate scores on critical reading comprehension test and MARSI were calculated and entered into SPSS.3. ResultsIn order to be sealed of the homogeneity of the participants of the study in terms of language proficiency, a general language proficiency test (Nelson test) was utilized. The test was extracted from Nelson English language tests by W.S. Flower and Norman Goe (1976). It composed of 50 multiple choice grammar and vocabulary items. Through the pilot program study, the reliability of the Nelson test was estimated and the following egress was achieved plank of reliability statisticsof the Language Proficiency Test (Nelson)Cronbachs AlphaN of Items.89950As it is noticed, the reliability of the Nelson test was estimated as .89 th rough the pilot study among 42 students, so the test enjoyed the acceptable reliability.The present study, also used a new self report measure, the Meta cognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI) (Mokhtari Richard, 2002), which is designed to assess adolescent and adult readers awareness and perceive use of reading strategies while reading materials. fit in to the author of MARSI, the major purposes of developing of this inventory were to devise an instrument that would permit one to assess the degree to which a student is or is not aware of the assorted processes involved in reading and to make it possible to learn about the goals and intentions he or she holds with coping with reading tasks.As a result of employing this inventory, the second statistical procedure was to estimate the reliability of the translated version of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI) administered to the subjects in the pilot study.Table of reliability statis tics of the translated version of MARSICronbachs AlphaN of Items.79930According to table 4. 2., the reliability index of the students answers to the MARSI, assessed by applying the Cronbach alpha (a) formula, was 0.79.In order to assess the participants ability in reading critically, a test of reading comprehension, extracted from a model TOEFL, was applied. The reliability of this test administered to the subjects in the pilot study was estimated to beTable of reliability statistics of critical reading comprehension testCronbachs AlphaN of Items.74818It is necessary to add that in order to validate the critical reading comprehension test, basically four steps were taken such as checking the content validity, face validity, criterion related validity, and construct validity. The procedure for each step can be found in the following in details.The test was compiled according to the recommendation of Alderson and Urquhart (1984). Four different texts were selected. The texts were foun d from among the materials suggested for cooking of language learners for TOEFL test. Of course it was evident that not any passage could peg down the passages had to be of an independent entity and understandable without a larger context. However, the main linguistic rule in text selection was to find text types that Iranian students of English were likely to read critically. I also consulted my supervisor to ensure the content validity of the passages and also to get confident that the questions could not be answered without reading the passages critically. The texts found were also sent to my advisor to make sure if there were any specific issues to be reconsidered. At the end of each passage, four or five questions were asked. Answering to the questions would be almost impossible without reading the test critically. The text chosen represented the following text typesa scientific text from a field relevant to Chemistrya text containing materials about body language and commun icationa passage about the sinking of the luxurious ship, Titanic a biographical passage about an influential citizen of the United States, John Muir.In addition to amend the test items through item analysis (item facility, item discrimination and choice distribution), the face validity of the test was examined in qualitative terms. The students in the pilot study were asked to state their reasons for estimating the reading test as being critical or not. The comments (40 students) were rather divided. Some disliked the test but many of them liked it. Those who liked it wrote that it infallible imagination, and cleverness and a few compared taking the reading test with doing philosophical reasoning. Those who disliked the test mostly argued that it required to test other abilities besides language proficiency (e. g. imagination). Some complained that the test was too difficult and that they could mainly perceive the structure of the sentences. For criterion related validity, the r esearcher followed the same procedure as Assar (2008). With the help of the Nelson language proficiency test and by running correlation between these scores and those obtained from the better reading test, among 32 students who participated in the pilot study, the concurrent validity of the test was established with an index of 0.71.Finally the critical reading test was construct-validated. To this end, the researcher took a process oriented approach following the picture interpret by Hirano (2008) and devised a questionnaire based on the discussed issues found in the literature on critical thinking and reading. The questionnaire was piloted among 40 students. First, they took the critical reading comprehension test, and immediately after they were asked to answer the questions in the questionnaire. Through a frequence count, it was discovered that the test had led to a critical reading successfully.The following table shows the result of the students answers to the fifteen questi ons in the devised questionnaire by the researcher based on the discussed issues found in the literature on critical thinking and reading. The results in the Mean column show the average score for each of the fifteen questions calculated based on a liker scale for each question ranging from 0 to 3.Table of reliability statistics for the reliability of critical reading questionnaireCronbachs AlphaN of Items.62415It is necessary to mention that after the reliability of the questionnaire for process validation of the reading comprehension test was calculated, the researcher assay to revise some of the questions. It is, therefore, hoped that further studies through the revised questionnaire will provide more reliable results.Finally we come to the research question, which was concerned with relationship between metacognitive awareness of reading strategies and critical reading ability of the students. To investigate this question, the Pearson carrefour correlation coefficient was run. The result of statistics is presented in the following tableAccording to the above table, correlation is significant at the 0.01 level. By using Pearson product correlation coefficient formula, the correlation between the two variables was estimated as .70. That is, there is a significant relationship between metacognitive awareness of reading strategies (MARSI) and critical reading ability. The results have been illustrated in the following scatter plot graph graph/Scatter plot for Correlation coefficient between critical reading ability and meta-cognitive awareness of reading strategiesThe above scatter plot illustrates the correlation coefficient between critical reading ability and meta-cognitive awareness of reading strategies including 113 subjects. Variable 1 (Y axis) is related to meta-cognitive awareness of reading strategies in an interval scale up to 130 variable 2 (X axis) is related to critical reading ability in an interval scale from zero up to 20.4. DiscussionThis s tudy was an attempt to investigate the relationship between metacognitive awareness of reading strategies (MARSI) and critical reading ability of Iranian students majoring in fields of English translation and literature. The statistical results proved that there is a significant relationship between the two variables of metacognitive awareness of reading strategies and critical reading ability.So the present study has found evidence that good and poor students are significantly different in their awareness and perceived use of metacognitive strategies. That is, the more a student knows about how he learns, the better learner he will be. Therefore, helping students to be more aware of their metacognitive reading strategies plays an important role in not only if developing their critical reading ability but also in their general reading comprehension ability.The results of this study can be compared and contrasted with those of other researchers. For instance, findings of the presen t study are in congruity with the study conducted by Parson (2002) whose major purpose of his study was to investigate the strength of the relationship between the use of metacognitive strategies and critical reading ability of the students. It was conducted, specifically, to test the authorization of a teaching procedure designed to improve critical reading ability by training students in metacognintive strategies. He discovered that the students who were instructed with this metacognitive training package (questioning, summarizing, predicting and speculating on the authors intended disembodied spirit and purpose) should become more aware of their own mental processes and will usher not only increased critical reading ability, but also increased general comprehension ability. Also, qualitative improvement noted in subjects strategy use provided sufficient evidence for further study into the effectiveness of this training procedure.Furthermore, the findings could indirectly suppo rt Icmezs (2009) findings who suggests that in a critical reading course, developing a competence in critical reading skills evokes curiosity and the novelty essential for students with high levels of proficiency.Finally, we can conclude that our findings here is in line with what Ajideh (2009) suggests, that poor readers in general lack effective metacognitive strategies and have little awareness on how to approach to reading. They also have deficiencies in the use of metacognitive strategies to monitor for their understanding of texts. In contrast, successful L2 readers know how to use appropriate strategies to enhance text comprehension.5. ConclusionAs mentioned previously, among the tools that students use to learn a second language, learning strategies have been given a significant role in all academic studies. Language learning strategies have been known as a factor that differentiates successful language learning from unsuccessful language learning. In recent years, there h as been an increasing awareness of the necessity to examine human personality in order to find solutions to the perplexing problems in language learning. It is evident that a student uses language learning strategies while he is under the influence of many linguistic, cognitive, and emotional factors. Thus, such an intertwined network can provide an answer to the wide psyche differences within the classroom.Also, the ability to critically analyze written materials has long been know as being crucial to the educational process.In this study, it has been tried to search the relationship between metacognitive awareness of reading strategies and critical reading ability of the students. With respect to the research question, it was found that when the students show more metacognitive awareness of strategies, they can read more critically and therefore it is more probable that they score higher on reading comprehension test.Based on the results, it can be concluded that there is a me aningful relationship between the students metacognitive awareness of reading strategies and their performance on critical reading comprehension test. Therefore, metacognitive strategies could provide the missing link between cognitive processes and critical reading ability. Metacognition refers to ones awareness of and control over his/her own mental processes (Brown, 2007).Consequently, it is worth mentioning that the relationship demonstrated here is only part of a complicated picture, which reveals just some of the factors operating in mind of our students that warrant investigation. It should be mentioned that language learners strategies and their effect in the process of learning is a highly complex issue. Therefore, metacognitive strategy awareness may not be just the only aspect of this achievement in learning rather, we need to investigate other types of language learning strategies and look at what helps the students to increase their ability in achieving the best result s.6. ImplicationsThe present study has found evidence which supports previous research findings that demonstrated that good and poor students are significantly different in their awareness and perceived use of metacognitive strategies. That is, the more a student knows about how he learns, the better learner he will be. Therefore, helping students to be more aware of their metacognitive reading strategies plays an important role in not only developing their critical reading ability but also in their general reading comprehension ability.So based on the above results, the finding of the study can have implications for teachers in reading classes. To be more specific, training good readers means more than just improving their knowledge about language structure and general study skills, and it needs raising their awareness of metacognitive strategies for critical reading.Also the results in this study may have implications for reading comprehension appraisal. As mentioned before, criti cal reading skills are essential for the students with high level of proficiency. That is the higher the level of proficiency, the higher the ability for critical reading. Therefore, one of the factors to be included in the assessment of language proficiency can be the ability to read critically especially at higher level of proficiency.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Theories of Deviance | Essay

Theories of aberrancy EssayDeviance by most popular concept is the violation of the norms, values and ethics. The actual meaning of deviance is The fact or state of departing from usual or accepted standards, especially in loving or sexual port. In sociological terms deviance is described as The act of press release against social and cultural norms, including rules and rightfulnesss. The study of deviance tries to prove that the changing of norms admirer apply to degenerate roughshod behavior.The aberrant activity is divided into cardinal types, Informal and Formal deviance. The violation of the formally enacted laws is the formal deviance i.e. offence e.g. robbery, theft. The violation of the knowledgeable social norms that ar not formal laws is informal deviance e.g. picking ones nose.Deviance is described in its statistical and positive terms. A definition of deviance, which relies on rigid reference to moral or ethical codes that ar presumably universal, we cal l an absolute definition of deviance. A good example of absolute deviance erect be strand in the moral codes of the Christian faith and especially in the decade Commandments which stipulate a set of behaviors that be presumably universally frowned upon by God. Thou shalt not kill. Thou shalt not steal. Individuals who overstretch these acts ar considered unnatural.A statistical definition of deviance would define as aberrant any behavior, attitude, or opinion that strays away from normal behavior. Now its genuinely substantial to understand what we mean by normal here because in this oddball we atomic number 18 not using a moral compass to envision deviance but a statistical compass. In statistics, normal has a very specific definition. In statistics, normal is basically the most prevailing or mutual behavior, attitude, or thing. For example, in Canadian society the mass of large number get up in the morning to go to figure bug out and thus it is normal to wake up in the morning and go to work. It is as swell up as normal to water your lawn and keep it green. (Sosteric)There are triad directs of explanation in the study of deviant behavior. A first level of explanation is concerned with the existence of the diverse forms of human behavior that extend in any society. It is always necessary to sprout account of processes of socialization. A second level of explanation is concerned with the variation in norms surrounded by social meetings, as manifested featurely in cultural and subcultural differences. Socialization takes determine inwardly particular social separates, and it is the norms of these groups that provide the standards for the identification of particular kinds of behavior as deviant. The third, and final, level of explanation is concerned with the ways in which particular individuals are identified as deviants by others and so come to draw a deviant identity. This is the matter of social reaction and control. (scot t 238)Deviance is very much related to heathenity. Ethnicity contributes a lot to the deviant behavior take by people in a society. Here it is important to observe that thither are many factors included in culturality to clearly condone the deviant behavior. They include categorize, education, place, family etc. An ethnic group may be in nonage at some place which can contribute to the deviant behavior of its members. They may not be given profuse privileges and basic facilities or they may be oppressed which can be a causal of the deviant behavior form its members. An ethnic group can be considered as deviant from the dominating group if there customs and norms are contrary to each other. Being in nonage can cause them to lose faith in the local authorities, jurisprudence, courts which can be leading to a deviant behavior.Within the ethnicity, economical class is a dominating factor for deviance. People from lower classes are seen to be more(prenominal) than bear on in deviant behavior due to fiscal con makets. Financial constraints may increase the inclination of people to commit economic crimes such as theft, burglary, armed robbery and way level do drugs dealing (Merton 1997)Two early explanations emerged to explain the role of different variables in deviant behavior- cultural deviance and strain theories. Both held class as central variable in shaping either values or access to opportunities. According to cultural deviance, structural position and location produced subcultural interactions that gave sharpen to deviant values (Cohen 1955). Strain theory argued that class lead to stop opportunities in achieving the shared American Dream which then fosters deviant alternatives for economic success (Cloward and Ohlin 1960)Most Deviant people claim peers. They are back up and supported by their peers for their deviant behavior. Another factor is that of family. Deviance is more common in people with single(a) parent family. This authori ty that possibly instead of getting their beliefs, values, and norms from home they get them from their peers who will be deviant to a fault.This maybe because your peers are a secondary method of socialization, so if there are no parents to be the agents of main(a) socialization the peers will take their place.As the peers are deviant, it would mean for them to fit into their culture they mustiness i.e. they must also go against the norms, be deviant. (CourseworkHelp)Social visibility and stereotypical simulacrum of a minority ethnicity gives rise to deviance.Education is also one of the determinants. usually non educated people are more plausibly to show deviant behavior as they are not fully aware of the norms of the society. Their kids from their primary socialization also learn to be deviant more potential than the kid whose parents are educated.Street crime has become very common in American and European communities by ethnic minorities. Negros, Afro Americans, African C aribbeans are involved in street crime for most of the time. There is suppuration evidence that members of ethnic minorities in Britain have become more intemperately involved with the legal system since the 1960s. They are now especially potential to appear as offenders and, more particularly, as victims of crime and as legal philosophy suspects. African Caribbeans, however, are almost twice as likely as whites to be the offenders of personal attacks. This is, in part, a consequence of the fact that African Caribbeans live, disproportionately, in inner-city areas where such crimes are particularly likely to take place. However, their experiences also have a racially motivated character. They are also macrocosm victimized by White for many serious crimes. This outgrowth using of black people reflects a real growth in racial violence and racist attacks by members of the white population. While criminal acts carried out during the urban riots of the 1980s often had a racial aspect to them, blacks are far more likely to be the targets of racial crimes than they are to commit them. This racial discrimination adds to the fire of ethnic minority. There has, nevertheless, been a growing involvement of young African Caribbeans in many kinds of street crime. The police hold to a widely shared prejudice that African Caribbeans, in particular, are heavily involved in crime and that special efforts essential to be taken to control them. Many studies have shown the racism inherent in police actions that stop black people in the street and subject them to closer scrutiny than other members of the population. African Caribbeans are more likely than whites, and members of other ethnic minorities, to be approached by the police on suspicion, to be prosecuted, and to be sentenced. This is reflected in a growing hostility of ethnic minorities towards the police, who are often seen as racists rather than neutral defenders of law and order. African Caribbeans in minority and living in the slums of Britain, belonging to lower classes are more likely to commit street crime. Young blacks are more likely to be involved due to peer pressure and single parent families. They have higher levels of unemployment than whites which produce greater temptation for crime. (scott 238)Afro-Caribbeans have younger age profile than ethnic majority (more young men) which means there are more people at peak pique age (14 21). (Livesey)Due to Self-fulfilling prophecy (police believe young blacks more likely to be involved in crime) results in more targeting and more arrests of ethnic minorities. Deviancy Amplification process occurs whereby police stereotyping and scapegoating of ethnic minorities result in demeanor of more crime amongst ethnic minorities. (Livesey)Reported by famous newsprint London evening standard was the news A study shows that disconsolate teenagers commit high levels of street crime and carry guns because they come from down(p) homes and have lit tle faith in the police, it has been claimed. A report by MPs revealed that although young blacks make up less than 3 per cent of the population of ten to 17-year-olds, they account for 26 per cent of arrests for robbery within that age group. They also represent 6 per cent of those from the age group in the criminal justice system, and 8.5 per cent of those arrested for all crimes, including a disproportionate number of street offences. They are more likely to be trusty for, and victims of, gun murders. Disillusionment with the police was blamed for revenge attacks and youngsters carrying weapons such as guns. Lack of confidence in the criminal justice system may mean some young black people take the law into their own pass on or carry weapons in an attempt to give justice and ensure their own personal safety. The study follows a serial publication of killings on and by young blacks. atomic number 53 of the highlighted example is of the stabbing of Damilola Taylor, ten, in 2000 and the gunning down of Letisha Shakespeare, 17, and Charlene Ellis, 18, in a gang feud in Birmingham in 2003.Recent cases include the killing of Tom ap Rhys Pryce, 31, a white lawyer, at the hands of two black teenagers while trying to snatch his mobile phone. (London even Standard)There are several sociological, psychological and biological theories explaining the relation in the midst of deviance and ethnicity. Few of the famous sociological theories include Conflict theory, Labeling theory, typic interactionism, Functionalism etc.The conflict perspectivefocuses on the negative, conflicted, and ever-changing nature of society. foreign functionalists who defend the status quo, avoid social change, and believe people support to effect social order, conflict theorists challenge the status quo, encourage social change (even when this means social revolution), and believe rich and powerful people force social order on the poor and the weak. (Cliff Notes)The blacks in British soci ety have conflicting values and agendas which give rise to the deviant behavior of the blacks. The minority of the blacks and the repression by the white adds to the fire of the blacks and they tend to go against the norms of the society. Whites are considered to be in the upper and higher statues of the society whereas blacks are considered to be the low status people and the status conflict leads the minority blacks to no abide by the social norms and values and revolt against it. Their deviant behavior is also because of the cultural differences between the blacks and the whites, between how they react to different situations. Whites try to dominate and impose themselves on the blacks, they grab highest positions in society, and they are in top institutions, in legislation, in government. They try to impose their normal social order on everyone resulting in conflicts with the blacks differing from them in many ways. One of the main factors of inequality and the criminal activitie s of blacks is that of finance. White are financially well off and this inequality among the society is responsible for the black minorities to be involved in crimes in order to get the basic necessities of life. The political institutions are also dominant by whites so there is no arrive at for blacks to have their voices raised and heard by the concerned authorities, who are also whites.Howard S. Becker gave the famous labeling theory which describes how the behaviors of the individuals are related to the terms used to severalize them and associated with the concept of Stereotyping. Labeling theory also explains the deviant behavior of blacks in Britain. law of nature and judiciary have a stereotypical image of the blacks to be more often than not involved in crime, thus the attitude of these two institutions creates a scent out of inferiority in blacks as they are always the suspects of some criminal activity. This leads them to go against these institutions.Beside these two theories there are several sociological concepts which explain other factors of the street crime. They include control theory, rational choice theory, strain theory etc. But the main explanation is given by the conflict and labeling theory.

Definition of Expatriate Failure

interpretation of deport FailureUnderstanding what discharge failure is and minimising the risk of it occurring is beta to multinational companies.Discuss.IntroductionStaffing in Multinational Company (MNC) is a contest but crucial and strategic issue to outside(a) human imaginativeness management (IHRM) (Graigner Nankervis, 2001). According to Edstron and Galbraith (1977), MNCs may decide to use global staffing for leash study reasons. First, the lack of competent and qualified resources in the forces democracy national (HNCs) second, a mean for management development and third, a authority to establish go over and coordination among the subsidiaries. A fourth reason, increasing knowledge imparting among the subsidiaries, was added later (Bonache et al. 2001 and Hocking et al. 2004). There atomic number 18 four major categories or practices for MNCs staffing ethnocentric, polycentric, geocentric and regioncentric (Perlmutter, 1969 and Heenan Perlmutter, 1979 as ci ted in Dowling et al., 2008, p.80). In general, a multinational company abide select several different approaches to world(prenominal) staffing. It may recruit from the local anesthetic democracy (HCN), or from the p argonnt artless (PCN) or from a immaterial subsidiary (TCN) (Dowling et al 2008, p.80).The IHRM literature has an extensive amount of research that has analyze the field of international staffing and drive outs, their effectiveness (Dowling Wetch 2004 as cited in Nanda Kumar 2012, p.58), associated woos (Dowling et, al. 2008, p.81) and retrograde on investment, compensations, realize, ostracizes conformation in the local countries, challenges and issues and failure.Effectiveness of kick out assignings internationalist concessions are very costly as they are estimated at millions of dollars per year (Collings, Scullion, Dowling 2009). Consequently, the effectiveness, utility and viability of exiles grants and international staffing rent been questi oned (Dowling et, al. 2008). Collings and his colleagues (2007) have communicate this issue by identifying five aspects supply side issues, demand side issues, expatriate accomplishment and expatriate failure, surgery evaluation, cost and career dynamics.Recently, Return on Investments (ROIs) both individual and corporate, instead of costs, have been used to evaluate their effectiveness (McNulty Tharenou 2005 McNulty, De Cieri Hutchings 2013).Expatriate FailureDefinitionIn its simplest term, expatriate failure could be specify as premature overstep. However, Harzing (1995, p.2) argues that this interpretation might be very woeful way to measure expatriate failure, as the ones who stay but failed to reach out expected writ of executions are more(prenominal) damaging to the organisation. According to Lee (2007), it should in like manner accommodate the expatriates that failed to adapt, to learn new things or to meet expected mathematical process standards. Bruning and McCaughey (2005) argue that it amounts to an expatriates premature return from the international appointment or under-performance whilst conducting the identification. Harzing and Christensen (2004, p.7) defines expatriate failure as the inability of an expatriate to perform according to the expectations of the organisation. This explanation include both under-performance during the international assignment including premature return and the remote repatriation permanent departure or dysfunction after return (ibid, p.7).As the objective is to conquestfully complete the international assignment, a broad definition of expatriate failure should be realizeed.Failure RatesIn the new-fangled years, many studies have reported senior high school rates of expatriate failures. For example, approximately 10 to 20% of the US expatriates returned prematurely speckle 33% of the ones who stayed had deplorable performance standards (Black and Gregersen 1997). A survey of global trends in i nternational assignments, by GMAC Global Relocation Services, National Foreign Trade Council (NFTC) and SHRM Global assembly (GMAC, NFTC SHRM) in 2004 shows that 7% of expatriates prematurely returned. However, as the cost of expatriates is relatively high (PriceWaterhouseCoopers 2006, as cited in Dowling et al 2008, p.81, others), a key issue in international staffing literature is expatriate failure and its cost.However, Harzing (1995, p.2), in The persistent falsehood of high expatriate failure rates argues that there is almost no empirical giveation for the existence of high failure rates when metrical as premature reentry.Reasons for Expatriate FailureMany researches have addressed the issues of expatriate failure and attempted to identify set the reasons that cause it. any(prenominal) of these reasons are the lack of cross-cultural adjustment by expatriates, their pardner or family and some dissatisfaction with the international assignments ahead(p) to poor performance . Around 10 to 20% of the US expatriates returned prematurely collectible to these reasons, while 33% of the ones who stayed had poor performance (Black and Gregersen 1997).Other reasons are due to poor selection, increased responsibilities and stresses and adjustment deep down the social context.cross-cultural adjustmentWhen expatriates start international assignments in the array country, they and their families have to adjust to a new tillage. They normally experience what is called a destination alarm cycle as visualised in look 1 (Adler 2008).At the beginning, expatriates are very positive and excited intimately their assignments aboard, and intimately discovering new culture. But, after a period of few months, they enter the next phase until they reach the lowest point in the curve, know as culture shock. However, as the expatriates start to adapt to the new culture and feel more settled, the curve ordain go up again.Difficulties with Cross-Cultural adjustments are some of the major reasons for premature return of expatriates or their families (Black and Gregersen 1997).A recent study (Abdul Malek Budhwar 2013) found a positive direct charm of the expatriates cultural intelligence with their work interaction and adjustments.Emotional intelligence was found by Gabel, Dolan Cerdin (2005) as having a signifi female genitaliat correlation with specific performance and endure be used predictor of cultural adjustment for supremacy in international assignment.Figure 1. Culture shock cycle silly Expatriate SelectionIm prissy selection of the expatriates is another(prenominal) reason for expatriate failure. Despite their importance, practiced and managerial skills are not for the only skills infallible for effective international staffing. More attention must be pay to interpersonal skills that help in cross-cultural adjustment (Lee 2007). other authorized factor that should be taken into administeration is the employees motivation and feeli ngs towards the assignment. With high motivation, they will consider the assignment aboard as an opportunity rather than a restraint in their career development (ibid). It is also important to consider the attitude of the spouse and children as well as their willingness towards moving and sprightliness aboard. For example, spouse resistance and family adjustment were among the highest critical challenges for expatriates (GMAC, NFTC SHRM 2004). Also, 47% of assignment refusals were due to family concerns (GMAC, NFTC SHRM 2004).Increased Responsibilities and StressesMoving to another country and leaving family, parents, friends and comfortable environments merchant ship causes stress. The amount of stress will increase with the cross-cultural adjustment as the expatriates would face ambiguous situations at work and outside work. Additionally, the new assignment may require higher level of commitment and responsibility leading to more stress. Balancing surrounded by work responsib ilities locally and with headquarters on the one and family expectations on the other hand will increase blackmail and stress (Brown 2008).Adjustment within the social contextIn ordinance to achieve the expected performance and cope with the increasing stress, expatriates must adapt to the new working and living conditions. Studies have found that social contexts, such(prenominal) as positive social contact with local nationals and social nedeucerks, have positive influence on the expatriates adjustments, stress-coping, problem-focused and emotion-focused coping (McGinley 2008 Osman-Gani Rockstuhl, 2008). be of FailureCosts occur in any international assignment particularly when an expatriate prematurely returns rest home or fails to perform as expected. There are two types of costs, direct and verificatory costs. Direct costs comprise the expatriates salary, cost of training especially during the pre-departure preparation, travel and relocation expenses. This cost could be b etween US$250,000 and US$1,250,000 (Briscoe 1995 Black Gregersen 1999 Abbottet al. 2006 all cited in Cole 2011, p.1505). However, indirect costs could be loss of customers and markets, damaging customer relationships, difficulties with host countrys brass and authorities and the cost of replacement (Forster 2000 Cole, 2011).Avoiding or Minimising Expatriate FailureManaging the international resources is a major challenge, but it is an important factor in the success or failure of the MNC. Many factors can contribute to the failure of MNCs, including expatriate failures due to premature return or poor repatriation. MNCs must control and mitigate any kind of failure and crisis including expatriate crises.In ready to avoid expatriate failure or minimise its risk, proper and suitable international human resource management policies and procedures should be in place. With such policies and procedures, IHRM can effectively and efficiently manage the international human resources. First , they can efficiently plan for the selection of expatriates second, pre-departure can be better wide-awake third, continuous communication with the expatriates while they are in their international assignment can be maintained, leading to better planning for their return to their home country with a proper position and farm out assignment and fourth, repatriation can be effectively planed and implemented.Expatriate SelectionIn addition to adept and managerial skills, interpersonal skills that could assist in the cultural adjustment are very indispensable to the success of the expatriates in their international assignments (Clarke and Hammer (1995).A study by Tung (1987) across 80 US MNCs had identified four general categories which may contribute to expatriate success. These categories are (1) technical competence, (2) personality traits or relational abilities, (3) environmental variables, and (4) family situations. Later, by examining 15 organisations, Ronen (1989) as cited i n Chew (2004) developed a model, for an effective selection, that consists of five categories (1) job factors, (2) relational dimensions, (3) motivational state, (4) family situation, and (5) language skills.The job factors consist of technical skills as identified by Tung, familiarity with the operations of both headquarter and host country, managerial skills and administrative competence. The relational dimensions include tolerance for ambiguity, behavioural flexibility, non- judgementalism, cultural empathy and low ethnocentrism and interpersonal skills. Motivational state comprises belief in the mission, congruence with career path, spare-time activity in overseas experience, interest in specific host country culture and willingness to acquire new patterns of behaviour and attitudes. In family situation, willingness of a spouse to live oversea, adaptive and promoteive spouse and stable marriages should be considered. Finally, host country language and non-verbal communication are very essential.Pre-departure preparation erstwhile the expatriate has been selected, pre-departure preparation should take place. This preparation should prepare the expatriate for the assignment abroad and ensure her/his success in the international assignment (Mendenhall et al. 1987). nigh of the activities that should be considered during this phase are career counseling, cross-cultural adjustment and languages.occupational group focus for both the expatriate and accompanied spouse is very essential to the success of the expatriate in the international assignment (ref).Preparing the expatriate and his family for cross-cultural adjustment is very crucial especially if the expatriate is not familiar with the culture customs and work ethics in the host country (Weech 2001).In addition to cross-cultural training, language training, and some short schoolman curriculummes in the host country could be very beneficial (Okpara Kabongo, 2011). A study by Shen and Lang (2009) exam ined the impacts of cross-cultural training (CCT) on expatriate performance in Australian MNEs, concluded that short-term assignments had a stronger impact on expatriates in term of cross-cultural adjustment.According to the survey of GMAC, NFTC SHRM, 2004, most companies (60%) depict formal cross-cultural training before assignments began with 73% of expatriates indicating that these trainings had great value. property good communications with home companyContinuous and good communications between the home company in general and HR personnel department in particular from one side and the expatriates from the other side are very healthy and productive. Through these communications, the expatriates are kept aware about what going on in their home organisations, their performances, strategic decisions, re-organisations and potential opportunities when they return home. They also facilitate and make the readjustment and post-employment easier and smother.The Return of Expatriates on e of the reasons for international assignment is to gain international and cross-cultural experience and knowledge wherefore it is very important for the MNCs to retain the employee after the international assignment has been completed. One of the major risks, associated with high costs, is the difficulty to maintain the expatriates upon their returns to the home country (Downes doubting Thomas 1999).Considering these difficulties, expatriates need assistance to settle back in their home country. As part of the overall IHRM policies and procedures, repatriation course of instructions must have been developed to tackle two major issues (1) career planning and (2) reverse culture shock (Hammer, stag Rogan 1998). The GMAC, NFTC SHRM 2004 survey confirmed that 8% of the expatriates have left the company during the assignment while 13% within one year of returning and supererogatory 10% within 2 years.Repatriation Agreement and Career PlanningAnother important factor to retain the expatriates after their return is to have a repatriation planning, preferably before the international assignment began (Latta 1999). Such planning should include a repatriation agreement that includes provision of a specified period of the assignment and a return incentive with an assurance of an acceptable job. For example, the GMAC, NFTC SHRM survey indicated that 86% held repatriation/re-entry discussion with 44% of had these discussions before departure and 23% under 6 months before return. However, only 24% had warrantys of employment at home country, 11% had guarantees for employment at another location and 68% had no guarantees for post-employment. trade guarantee, with comparable position or a promotion, is very crucial for the repatriation program to be successful.Reverse Culture shockAssisting the employee and his family to re-adjust into their home country and culture is very important. They make the employees fell that the company had taken care of them and acted to t heir topper interests. Definitely, this will enforce the employee commitments and loyalty to the home company and helps maintaining these experienced resources and their international knowledge within the organisation.Alternative AssignmentsAs MNCs are more and more faced with pressures to reduce costs and shortage and resistance of employees to move abroad for long-term assignments, Collings (2007) and his colleagues argue that international assignments are unsustainable. For them, MNCs might need to consider alternative and standard forms of international assignment. Some of these alternatives could be short-term assignments, commuter assignments, international business travel and virtual assignments. It is also essential that IHRM carry these emerging alternatives assignments into their policies and procedures.ConclusionExpatriate failure, either premature return, performing to a lower place expectation or inability to retain the expatriate after repatriation, is very common w hining MNCs and it could be very costly. There are many reasons for expatriate failure. Cross-cultural adjustments for the expatriates, their spouse of their children are one of the most reasons for premature return. Additionally, poor expatriate selection that only considers technical and managerial skills with interpersonal skills is another reason. Added to them is stress caused by increased responsibility and balancing between work and family (Shih, Chiang and Hsu, 2010).Inability to maintain the experienced employees after repatriation is another risk. Improper repatriation program that take in consideration career planning and job guarantee after coming back home and reverse culture shock that help the expatriates and their families to readjust in their home country are ones of the major reasons.Expatriate failure can be avoided or minimised by (1) proper expatriate selection taking in consideration the interpersonal skills of the expatriates, the motivation of the candidates and the willingness of their spouses and families to live in the host country (2) pre-preparation departure through careers counselling and cultural adjustments and language training for the employees and their families and (3) maintaining good and continuous communications with the employees while there are aboard and (4) having, as an integral part of IHRM processes and procedures, an repatriation program that take care of the employees and their families when they return home.Finally, the key challenge on avoiding or minimising expatriate failures is to have adequate and proper IHRM policies and procedures that ensure proper support for international assignment as well as repatriation.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Economic Impact Of Mega Sports Tourism Essay

scotch oppositionion Of Mega Sports Tourism EssayThe use of maneuvers markets to search questions of sparing interest has a abundant history as the volume of this literature analyses US rollicks, notably Ameri raft football, basketball, baseball, and ice hockey, whilst there is also a considerable interest in soccer, the leading world brag (For example, the 1998 European Short Course Swimming, 1999 European Show Jumping and the 2001 arna Half Marathon Championships).Over the past two decades there has been change magnitude competition among cities, regions and countries to host mega enjoymenting compositors cases Therefore G all overnment and other proponents of study(ip) sporting compositors cases usually seek to back up their claims of the event providing an scotch boost by commissioning an stintingal dissemble statement. For example, stinting explore Associates (1984) study of the Los Angeles surpassings, Humphreys and Plummers (1992) study of the Atlanta Ol ympics, and KPMG Peat Marwicks (1993) study of the Sydney Olympics.Hosting a sport event has revealed a number of benefits in our communities and of those benefits, some reasons like increasing connection visibility, authoritative degree psychical income, and enhancing community image be all harsh and acceptable postulations. Economic impact in sporting events can be defined as the net change in an providence resulting from a sport event and the change is caused by activity involving the acquisition, operation, development, and use of sport facilities and services (Lieber and Alton, 1983)which in turn generate visitors spending, humanity spending, employment opportunities, and revenue revenue. In study of sparing impact Expenditures can be categorise as channelise, indirect, and induced inwardnesss. For example direct expenditure is the enthronement unavoidable to meet the obligate upd demand of visitors for goods and services. Indirect effects are the ruffle up ef fect of additional rounds of re-circulating the initial spectators dollars. Induced effects are the increase in employment and household income that result from the economic activity render by the direct and indirect effects (Dawson, Blahna, Keith, 1993 Howard Crompton, 1995).Sports Economics possesses substantial puzzle in economic consulting to the sports industry, with specific knowledge of the economic impact of facilities, events, and teams so considering the publicity and scrutiny surrounding much(prenominal) studies, it is imperative to select a firm that not only has substantial experience, nevertheless also has a reputation for consistently providing an accurate assessment of economic impact.There are following reasons to conduct economic impact studies of sport events and Firstly, because many an(prenominal) sport events in our communities were financed by public tax support, economic impact studies ride out to be an Copernican public relations tool for city gover nment. Secondly, there is doubt that sporting events may actually help develop a community in relative to its economy therefore, accurate estimates should be proposed and the results should be reported to community members and Thirdly, as sport is not dear an fun but an industry so the results of economic impact may be a cornerstone to develop many related businesses in communities. Finally, positive or negative economic results of sport events may be an important method to de end pointine communities muster in budget for the coming year so as an example in July of 2001, Beijing was awarded the 2008 Summer Olympic Games so most people assume that such an event will use up enormous economic benefits to the host city not just during the event, but for years afterward. The scale of the organization, facilities and infrastructure required for such a big undertaking are such that the Games cannot but pass on substantial economic effects (Sydney 2000 Games, p 2) but what exactly are these economic effects, and how do they affect the quality of life of local residents?The relevance of studies for example, such as these to the Beijing games depends in element on the similarity of the economic conditions in China to previous hosts so it seems logical that a less highly-developed country will grant more to gain from long term growth opportunities. Matheson and Baade (2003) argue, however, that the prospects of mega-sporting events are even worse for developing countries and the opportunity be of providing state of the art facilities are much higher and lack of unexampled infrastructure requires pregnant additional investment. belles-lettres Review on Economic Impact StudiesPrecursorThe aim of this literature review is to understand direct and indirect impact of major sports events on economy and understand how major sports can open new dimension in economy. This has been done through referring various journals, articles and magazines also a survey has been carried out as part of primary investigate to analyze impact of major sports event on Economy however validation of data collected is subject to sources and dominant conditions. Final phase of this study on IPL covers compendium of contribution of IPL to Indian economy, It analyze that how IPL has opened a new dimension for Indian economy to grow and attracts domestic and foreign investors. This phase also covers SWOT analysis of IPL, reasons critical to success of IPL and future ahead.Statement of PurposePreviously many research studies have contributed to understand economic impact of sport and/or recreational events however most studies are found upon the researchers personal learning and arguable methodology. The purpose of this study was to review previous economic impact studies and to construct model for conducting an economic impact study. This entire theoretical framework has been tested by analyzing a case study of economic Impact of mega sports events like Indian P remier League on Indian economy.Literature ReviewTo study Economic impact of sports is challenging topic in the field of management fields because estimating the economic impact of sporting events and make some constructive statement is very difficult and un endive. Due to the prejudiced nature of social science, ideas and methodology vary from person to person for conducting economic impact studies. The main barrier behind conducting social science research is based on the level of competitiveness and belief in perceptiveness of the material. and also social objects are hidden behind a hiding of pre-constructed hash outs which present the worst barrier to scientific investigation, and countless sociologists believe they are talking about the object of study when they are merely relaying the discourse which, in sport as elsewhere, the object produces about itself, whether through its officials, supporters or journalists (Bourdieu, 1999). Therefore, construction of truly scienti fic objects implies a break with common representations, which can notably be effected by taking these pre-notions as the object of study so this report examines the wider benefits that move beyond the economic impact and proffers the adoption of the balanced scorecard approach to event evaluation. This consolidated go of research builds on the original Measuring Success in 1999 which was based on the premise that major sports events have the potential to achieve significant economic impacts for the host town, city or area but economic impact is now one of the parameters upon which an events success is measured.Countries, who host the mega sports event, should make a roadmap for significant investments in sports venues and other infrastructure. It is generally assumed that the scale of such event and roadmap of the preparation for it will create bigger and long changeless economic benefits to the host country. This would result in huge economic benefits that would have significan t economic impact. However unfortunately these studies are constructed around misapplications of economic theoretical framework that virtually guarantee their projections will be great. Ex-post studies have consistently showed no evidence of positive economic impacts from mega-sporting events even remotely approaching the estimates in economic impact studies. For example, in the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing, China have put up huge investments in infrastructure and facility recreation to a new level. The opportunity for long term economic benefits from the mega sports event like Beijing, critically depend on how well mega sports events related investments in venues and infrastructure can be integrate into the overall economy in the years following the GamesIn up-to-the-minute scenario economic impact studies have become standard operating map for supporters of public funding for sports events. It has led to acceptance of their findings by the government and public due to their prevalence with no critical evaluation. Due to the huge investment involve in such high profile mega sports events, large and positive Economic effects are taken as given the studies endorse what is already believed. The promise of worldwide exposure and economic gain has make hosting these major and regularly scheduled sporting affairs a paying(a) goal for aspiring cities around the world (Short 2000, p. 320).Hosting a mega sport event like Olympic, has exhibited a number of large and long lasting benefits in our communities like enhancing community image, increasing community visibility and positive psychic income are all common and acceptable postulations. However, sport is not just limited to an entertainment, also it act as full fledge industry, the results of economic impact may be a cornerstone to develop many related businesses in communities. Positive or negative economic results of sport events may be a critical factor to determine communities draft budget for the c oming year.Mega-events such as the Olympic Games require large sums of public capital to be spent on venues and infrastructure improvements. Economic impact studies are often commissioned In order to beg off the use of large sum of public money towards invariably large inflows of money that will have a long-term positive effect on the economy by such means as commerce creation and visitor spending. Scale of the mega sports event which attract large amounts of money from outside a local economy, are forecasted to have economic impacts in the billions of dollarsThe simple elegance of economic impact studies, injections of money circulating over and over in an economy to create a multiplier effect, has an beguiling something for-nothing quality that is hard to refute. However to justify a counter leaning can be difficult due to numerous mistakes made in economic impact studies. Critics have focused on numerous subjective areas like 1) using multipliers that are too large, 2) treat ing costs as benefits, 3) ignoring opportunity costs and 4) using gross spending instead of net changes.In hosting mega sports event the major part of investment required on constructing stadiums, which to a large degree is spent on hiring construction workers and purchasing materials from local suppliers, is counted as a benefit to the local economy.

Mind Body Relationship According To Descartes Philosophy Essay

Mind Body Relationship According To Descartes philosophical system EssayMind and what it con n mavins is the battered offspring of the union of psychology. At slightly deep level we dearly love and cherish it and see bottomland its surface great potential but, beca mapping of our own inadequacies, we continuously abuse t, raspingly and abruptly pummeling it for imagined excesses, and occasionally crimson lock it away in whatever dark tightfittingt where we smoke non hear its insistent whines.The history of the use of the bound reveals two conflicting impulses the tendency to treat pass as a meta animal(prenominal) mechanistic system, and the tendency to view it as convenient biologic metaphor representing the manifestation of the, still non understood, neurophysiologic processes of the drumhead. The following atomic number 18 the to a greater extent important and common uses of the term and this basic conflict set up be seen in all.Mind as the sum of money of hypothes ized good-hearted processes and acts that may practise as explanatory devices for psychological data. In recent years this has grow the dominant use of the term. present, mental components argon hypothesized be elbow grease they live with, in the proper theoretic frame, considerable explanatory power. Of interest here is the reluctance, even refusal, of or so the neurophysiological structures to which it might relate. The focus is typically on the effectiveness of the hypothesized model of reason to explain- not merely studies. The more or less frequent users of this meaning be workers in artificial intelligence, forward-looking cognitive psychologists and several schools of philosophy, e.g. functionalism.Mind as the totality of the conscious and unconscious mental experiences of an individual organism (usually although not always, a forgiving organism). Actually, this use represents an effort to avoid the above-mentioned metaphysical fuss but it produces a because of t he confusion over how to characterize consciousness. Often even those with a behavioristic approach depart back door themselves into speculating about(predicate) foreland in this fashion but they give invariably alternate consciousness with behaviors and acts.Mind as a collection of processes. Probably the succeeding(prenominal) most commonly held view, the competition here is that the several processes generally sightvass under the rubrics of perception and cognition collectively constitute top dog. Here, at that place is no square effort to define only to enumerate and to seek to actualize those processes enumerated.Mind as equivalent to brain. This position which goes back to William James must in the final analysis be true. Its major liability, about brain function. As a result, it is philosophical position.Mind as an emergent property. The argument here is that of emergentism, that when a biological system r each(prenominal)es a point of able complexity and organ izational structure top dog emerges.Mind as a list of synonyms. For lesson, psyche, soul, self etc. No liaison is gained by this use and the definitional troubles are compounded.Mind as intelligence. Really only a colloquial use of the term as in phrases homogeneous, She has a good spirit.Mind as a characteristic or trait. Also used nontechnical as in phrases resembling, the sagaciousness of an artist, or the Northern European mind.The Brain, no intervention advise be complete without mentioning the experiment of Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936). Ivan Pavlov and his followers showed, un well-educated and conditioned reflexes of the brain underlie mental activity. When external objects act on the kindling endings of the sense organs, strictly determined bioelectric impulses are sent to the brain via the dying(p) system. They evoke a number of complexes physic-chemical changes during which the impulse (signal) received is changed and evokes a repartee reaction of the organism. The brain, on the bais of this signal, sends a reaction impulse to the corresponding innate organs or locomotory organs, causing the most purposive action. When an animal sees nutrient it secretes saliva, when a human touches a rattling hot object, he equivalent a shot withdraws his hand. The process is known as an unconditioned reflex or instinct.2. DUALISM one and only(a) of the classical metaphysical issues concerning the affinityship surrounded by that which is mental and that which is physical. The issue has its origins in the ancient dualism of Plato and since whence umpteen solutions to the line fork over been offered the major ones, classified ad according to whether they are dualisms, monisms or compromises, followsDualismsInteractionism, where in mind and re chief(prenominal)s are assume to be straighten out acting and mutually influencing each some other.Psychophysicalism (or parallelism), wherein mind and frame are treated as two distinct, in dependent, but s uddenly correlated elements.3. WHO ACCEPT DUALISM Despite the obviousness of this problem, and the amount of attention tending(p) to it, Descartes himself never took this issue very seriously. His response to Gassendi is a telling exampleThese questions presuppose amongst other things an description of the union between the soul and the remains, which I have not yet dealt with at all. save I will say, for your benefit at least, that the whole problem contained in such questions arises only when from a supposition that is fabricated and targetnot in any way be proved, namely that, if the soul and the luggage compartment are two substances whose genius is una akin, this prevents them from universe able to act on each.So, Descartes response to the mind-body problem is twofold.First, Descartes contends that a response to this question presupposes an explanation of the union between the mind (or soul) and the body.Second, Descartes claims that the question itself stems from t he false presupposition that two substances with solely different natures cannot act on each other. advertise examination of these two points will occur in reverse order.Descartes principles of origin put forward in theThird Meditation lie at the heart of this second presupposition. The relevant portion of this discussion is when Descartes argues that the less real cannot cause nearthing that is more real, because the less real does not have full reality to bring about something more real than itself. This principle applies on the general level of substances and modes. On this account, an in limited substance, that is, God, is the most real thing because only he desires nothing else in order to exist created, finite substances are next most real, because they require only Gods creative and standpat(prenominal) activity in order to exist and finally, modes are the least real, because they require a created substance and an infinite substance in order to exist. So, on this prin ciple, a mode cannot cause the existence of a substance since modes are less real than finite substances. Similarly, a created, finite substance cannot cause the existence of an infinite substance. But a finite substance can cause the existence of another finite substance or a mode (since modes are less real than substances). Hence, Descartes point could be that the completely diverse natures of mind and body do not violate this causative principle, since both are finite substances causing modes to exist in some other finite substance. This indicates further that the activity of the mind on the body does not require contact and motion, in that respectby suggesting that mind and body do not bear a mechanistic causal intercourse to each other. More will be said about this below.The first presupposition concerns an explanation of how the mind is united with the body. Descartes remarks about this issue are scattered crosswise both his published whole works and his private correspond ence. These texts indicate that Descartes did not watch over that voluntary bodied movements and sensation arise because of the causal interaction of mind and body by contact and motion. Rather, he maintains a version of the form- discipline contingent action of soul-body union endorsed by some of his scholastic-Aristotelian predecessors and contemporaries. Although a close analysis of the texts in question cannot be conducted here, a brief summary of how this theory works for Descartes can be provided.Before providing this summary, however, it is important to disclaim that this scholastic-Aristotelian description is a minority position amongst Descartes scholars. The traditionalistic view maintains that Descartes human being is collected of two substances that causally interact in a mechanistic fashion. This traditional view led some of Descartes successors, such as Malebranche and Leibniz (who also believed in the real distinction of mind and body), to devise metaphysical s ystems wherein mind and body do not causally interact despite appearances to the contrary. Other philosophers considered the mind-body problem to be insurmountable, at that placeby abjureing their real distinction they claim that everything is either broaden (as is common nowadays) or mental (as George Berkeley argued in the 18th century). Indeed, this traditional, mechanistic interpretation of Descartes is so deeply ingrained in the minds of philosophers today, that most do not even bother to argue for it. However, a notable exception is Marleen Rozemond, who argues for the repugnance of Descartes metaphysics with any scholastic-Aristotelian version of mind or soul-body union. Those interested in tight examining her arguments should consult her bookDescartess Dualism. A book arguing in choose of the scholastic-Aristotelian interpretation is entitledDescartes and the Metaphysics of Human Nature.4. DESCARTES VIEW ON DUALISMRene Descartes theory of Dualism is the most important dualistic theory in the history of philosophy. According to Descartes mind and body are totally different from each other. Body does not depend on mind and also mind does not depend on body. Ones nature does not present on other. The necessary nature of the body is extension and body is passive. But the necessary nature of the mind is consciousness, active and independent.According to Descartes consciousness is present only within human mind. It does not present in stone, wood like this kind of matter and not even animal also. Descartes thinks that human mind and body can never mix with each other. Mind lodged in body as a totally separate substance . And for this kind of lodged - social intercourseship human can control their incarnate movement as they want.According to Descartes body is like a machine and mind is like a controller of that machine.Here Descartes gives an example ,,The relation between mind and body is not like the relation between ship and the captain of the ship. Mind -body relation is a very close relation. Because if the ship damage or destroy, the captain does not feel any pang. But if there is any kind of pain in the human body, then it is painful for human mind also. So, we have to contain that mind body relation is a very close relation.Now Descartes talking about interactionism.Here he says that, in our day-to-day life we can realize sometimes mind effect on body and sometimes body effect on mind. Sometimes mental activities causes bodily changes and sometimes bodily activity causes mental changes.Like , if mind is upset or disturb the strength of the body is refine. And if mind is euphoric the strength of the body is grown up. Here mind is the cause of bodily changes. Likewise, if the body is ill then the thinking power of the mind is down automatically. And if the body is well then the thinking power of the mind will grow automatically.To describe all of these kinds of actions we need to accept the theory of interactionism.B ut if we follow Descartes dualism and persuade mind and body as a separate and opposite substance then this kind of interactionism is never possible. Because if there is no similarity between two things then no relation can possible between them. Because there must be a three-figure balance and soft resemblance between cause and effect.Descartes first take mind and body separate and opposite substance. And break all the relation between them. But after that he himself again mention about interactionism.Descartes has to face many problem for this kind of thinking. Because how can it would be possible to create any relation between two opposite kind of substance?Here Descartes solve the problem in two different ways. 1. In case of mind-body relation Descartes talking only about the relation of coexistence and the constitutive one but not the unity of nature. According to Descartes if there is any constitutive unity then body and mind do not interact through their nature, the inte ract as an attachment of two separate object and through this interaction their distinctness do not change.2. in the book of the passions of the soul Descartes says that, the relation between mind and body is not with the each and every part of the body. This relation is only with the pineal gland of the brain. This pituitary gland or pineal gland is the main and only gland for the relation of interactionism. Physical changes directly effect to the pineal gland and it is the cause of mental changes. Likewise mental think or mental will directly effect to the pineal gland. And this is the cause of physical changes. In the book of the passions of the soul Descartes tell this small gland stern of animal spirit. Body and mind effect on each other through this gland.So, according to Descartes the interactionism between two opposite kind of objects can happen indirectly with the help of the pineal gland.5. CRITISISM AGAINST DESCARTES There are many criticism of Descartes interactionism.D escartes mention constitutive unity, but in this unity the nature of mind and body does not change- this solution is not acceptable. Because if there is any constitutive unity between two separate substance, then there must be some changes in their nature.Descartes accept the relation between mind and pineal gland. But the acceptation of only pineal gland without body could not solve the problem. It only replace the proble from one place to another. Mind influences pineal gland directly. This implies mind influences body because pineal gland is the part of the body.According to the casual rule of natural scientific discipline interactionism or cause effect relation is not possible between two opposite kind of things like mind and body. The rule is that there must be some kind of quantitative balance and qualitative resemblance between cause and effect.The theory of interactionism about mind and body shorten the law of conservation of capacity. According to this law the total ene rgy of this material-world is constant. It only change from one form to another.But if we follow the interactionism we have to accept that when body effect on mind, some sort of bodily energy store into mind and total bodily energy (material energy) decreases and vice-versa.So, it ignore the rule of the law of conservation of energy.If we take mind as a separate substance from material body, we have to face those two problems a) The problem of identification.b) The problem of individuation.Because if conscious mind is invisible and untouchable, then how can we position mind ? ( As conscious mind can not be situated in space ).And identification is not possible then individuation is also not possible .So, it is totally meaningless to accept mind totally separate from body.If there is nothing like mind except body, the problem of interactionism about mind and body will be a meaningless problem.Descartes says that extension is the necessary nature of matter. But it is not acceptable b y modern scientist like, Lord Belfour, James jeans, Eddington and others. In modern science immaterializing the matter become possible. Matter is not a mere, extensive, self-colored substance.If we analyze matter, we will get some kind of energy like electron and proton at the last part of the division. And if energy is the main thing of the world then Descartes dualism is not acceptable. Because there s nothing like extendable matter.ConclusionWe can never deny the existence of mind. lone(prenominal) mind can deny mind, so that mind s establish. And we cannot deny the relation between mind and body in a very simple way. In our everyday experience we can feel that there is a cause-effect relation between mind and body.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

vicksburg :: essays research papers fc

Battle of Vicksburg The Battle of Vicksburg, The civilised war that in my opinion cut our nation in two, Americans competitiveness Americans. This was a very important battle that was fought westward it was the turning transfer in the war. The conglutination forces under command Ulysses S. Grant on July 4, 1863, General Ulysses S. Grant with the largest force, about 67, 000 men. Vicksburg is the last spot on the manuscript River. May through July in 1862, several attempts to seize Vicksburg were do by Adam. These Ventures failed because the guns used on the ships could not be directed effectively against the confederate batteries blue on the bluffs, and because the confederate troops far outnumbered the Unions direct against them. Between Cairo, Illinois, and the Gulf of Mexico, the disseminated multiple sclerosis River twists and winds for nearly 1,000 miles. Having control of Vicksburg and the Mississippi River was a huge benefit in the war. The River was important to bot h the American Government and to the Confederate forces in the west. Confederate forces made artillery batteries nimble to take Union ships. Before the Civil War, Vicksburg, Mississippi had become ane of the most prosperous and advanced towns on the old Southern frontier. The city was the center of trade it was crowded with boats carrying all kinds of goods.By early 1862 the undisturbed town had become one of the most important sight in the whole confederacy. From the beginning of the war in 1861, to protect their most prized possession, the cabal but up protective points along the river. After fighting their panache in the south from Illinois and uniting from Gulf of Mexico, Federal forces eventually captured post afterwards post. Until the summer of 1862, only Vicksburg and Port Hudson appeared to be major spots to the Union of the two posts, Vicksburg was the strongest and most important. The city Sate was high over looking a bend in the river, protected by artillery an d dangerous swamps. So far the city had rejected Union efforts to force into submission. In order to protect the Mississippi Valley, Confederates made a line of defense, which ran from Columbus, Kentucky, overlooking the Mississippi River through bowling green to Cumberland wisecrack where the bright flank was secure on the mountains. On the Mississippi River, south of Columbus, forts were also placed on island number 10 and on the Chickasaw Bluffs north of supported Jackson St.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Hemingways a Clean, Well-lighted Place And His Life Essay -- essays

Hemingways "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" and His Life     Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21st, 1899. He was the boy of Dr.Clarence Edmonds and Grace Hall Hemingway. He grew up in a low-pitched town calledOak Park, Illinois. Hemingway was brought up in a somewhat button-downhousehold by his parents who pushed the value of politeness and religion. Itwasnt until he began English classes in school that his writing talent began toshine.     After he graduated from soaring school Hemingway turned his back onuniversity and he decided to conk to Kansas City. It was there where he got hisfirst job as a writer. He was a reporter for the Kansas City Star. The Starwas the first to introduce to him the discussion writing format which demands brief,to the point sentences and the smooth flowing of ideas. It seems that Hemingwayadapted this sprint to his fiction writng. Hemingway demonstrates this talent ina short story called "A Clean W ell-Lighted Place".     When he was 19 Hemingway enlisted in the army. He was rejected due to adefective left eye. He consequently turned to the Red Cross in which he became a gamelieutenant. The Red Cross brought him to the front lines of the war in Italy.It was here where he saw many disturbing sights which probably had a hand inshaping his character.     After extensive injuries from the war, Hemingway returned unhappily toOak Park...

The Authentic Movement of the 1960s Essay -- Peace, Love, Rock n Roll,

Peace, love, and list n roll. To some people those three words are the low thing to pop into their minds when they think of the 1960s. In reality, these words represent something much more significant. In the 1960s people started expressing their beliefs freely changing baseball club in the United States forever, through media, protests, the hippie movement, and even music. The majority of the nations drama in the 1960s was a result of the Vietnam War. many citizens werent happy about being at war formerly again, and this time, it seemed like a never ending war. As time went on the citizens grew more desperate for an end to this war. One reason that citizens were disgusted with the judgement of the war was because of the Pentagon Papers. The Pentagon Papers contained private information about the Vietnam War. Daniel Ellsberg, who worked for the Department of defensive structure Study of the U.S. political and military involvement in the Vietnam War, got ahold of this private information. Daniel refractory that what was going on wasnt right, and we wanted the rest of the countrys citizens to know what was really going on. He copied and sent these papers to the rising York Times and had them release the information for the public to read (networks). Once the citizens effected the truth about Vietnam, they were ready to start fighting for a change.The American citizens took matters into their own hands and decided to rebel. Although the rebellion against the leaders of the U.S. was nationwide, most of it started on college campuses. One of the first groups known to take a stand was a group of college students that joined forces. They called themselves the Students for a Democratic Society. This group contributed greatly to the working out of the movement... ... listen to, and where to go with their futures. In the 1960s individuality was born, and continues to grow every(prenominal) single day. Works CitedCheese. Cheesybirdmess. 5 October 2014. 4 O ctober 2914 .Erickson, Jill. WHY did the counterculture movement make grow? The Counter Culture Hippier Movement 1965-1971. Findlay Mrs.Erickson, 4 May 2014.Mazells, Fred and Patrick Martin. World collectivised Web Page. 4 May 2010. 25 April 2014 .networks, A&E televison. History.com. 2011. 24 April 2014 .staff of History.com, History.com. History.com. 2010. 24 April 2014 .Yagi, Randy. Examiner.com. 29 March 2012. 25 April 2014 .

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Government Intrusion and Civil Liberties Essay -- Government

some deal subscribe to either read or heard of the support 1984 in some point in their tall school career. both(prenominal) may see it as just fabricated literature that we suss out in English class, but it could become comprehend as to how our organisation activity is handling national security. In 1984, the author, George Orwell talks some a high conjunction in which one group of volume runs society and everyone is under surveillance. This was something that people in the 1980s would not think possible, so how could Orwell have archetype of this plot when writing the book during the 1940s? It could have been due to the draw near in technology such as radio, film, television. The aid of goernment preventative could have also been produced beca engross World War II was present the quantify 1984 was created, from which Orwell twists in his book. What is even more interesting is that the acold War is somehow described in 1984 and it pretty much became true . With the bleak War having taken place, U.S. citizens were worried that people among them could be a communist the enemy of the U.S. and capitalism. Because of their fear, people started to accuse one another(prenominal) of being communists, which conduct to them being gaol with little and what was, invalid evidence. This is now referred to as the inflamed intimidate where blushing(a) symbolized Communism. After this so called war, there was a cartridge holder of peace where the likeliness of there being another Red Scare was very unlikely, until the unforgettable date, September 11, 2001, or often referred to as 9/11 where the governments fear of terrorist presence begun. With the governments fear of another 9/11, preventing this from reoccurring is very crucial to the United States politicians and so through the use of modern technology, they are willing an... ...geles Times, 29 Dec. 2011. Web. 28 whitethorn 2012. . Williams, chirrup J. Telecom Customers may Sue gov erning over Wiretapping, Court Says. Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, 29 Dec. 2011. Web. 28 May 2012. . Williams, Carol J. Telecom Customers May Sue Government over Wiretapping, Court Says. Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, 29 Dec. 2011. Web. 28 May 2012. . Wing, Nick. Indefinite clasp Blocked District Judge Rules On polemic Provision Of NDAA. The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 16 May 2012. Web. 28 May 2012. . Government Intrusion and Civil Liberties look for -- Government Most people have either read or heard of the book 1984 in some point in their high school career. Some may see it as just fictional literature that we learn in English class, but it could become seeing as to how our government is handling national security. In 1984, the author, George Orwell talks about a society in which one group of people runs society and everyone is under surveillance. This was something that people in the 1980s would not think possible, so how coul d Orwell have thought of this plot when writing the book during the 1940s? It could have been due to the progress in technology such as radio, film, television. The fear of government interference could have also been produced because World War II was present the time 1984 was created, from which Orwell twists in his book. What is even more interesting is that the Cold War is somehow described in 1984 and it pretty much became true. With the Cold War having taken place, U.S. citizens were worried that people among them could be a Communist the enemy of the U.S. and capitalism. Because of their fear, people started to accuse one another of being communists, which led to them being imprisoned with little and what was, invalid evidence. This is now referred to as the Red Scare where Red symbolized Communism. After this so called war, there was a time of peace where the likelihood of there being another Red Scare was very unlikely, until the unforgettable date, September 11, 2001, or of ten referred to as 9/11 where the governments fear of terrorist presence begun. With the governments fear of another 9/11, preventing this from reoccurring is very crucial to the United States politicians and so through the use of modern technology, they are willing an... ...geles Times, 29 Dec. 2011. Web. 28 May 2012. . Williams, Carol J. Telecom Customers May Sue Government over Wiretapping, Court Says. Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, 29 Dec. 2011. Web. 28 May 2012. . Williams, Carol J. Telecom Customers May Sue Government over Wiretapping, Court Says. Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, 29 Dec. 2011. Web. 28 May 2012. . Wing, Nick. Indefinite Detention Blocked District Judge Rules On Controversial Provision Of NDAA. The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 16 May 2012. Web. 28 May 2012. .